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Predicting the Products of Double Replacement Reactions Using a Solubility Table.

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Presentation on theme: "Predicting the Products of Double Replacement Reactions Using a Solubility Table."— Presentation transcript:

1 Predicting the Products of Double Replacement Reactions Using a Solubility Table

2 Introduction Double replacement reactions are reactions that occur in solution. Cations and anions change places in double replacement reactions. One product must be: solid (precipitate) insoluble gas water

3 Basics Double replacement reactions have the following form: AX(aq) + BY(aq) AY(s) + BX(aq) For example: BaCl 2 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + 2 NaCl(aq) Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 HCl(aq) PbCl 2 (s) + 2 HNO 3 (aq) KOH(aq) + HBr(aq) H 2 O(l) + KBr(aq)

4 Basics In each of these reactions, the cations and anions change partners: BaCl 2 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + 2 NaCl(aq)

5 Basics In each of these reactions, the cations and anions change partners: BaCl 2 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + 2 NaCl(aq)

6 Basics In each of these reactions, the cations and anions change partners: BaCl 2 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + 2 NaCl(aq)

7 Basics Again, one of the products must be: a precipitate (indicated by (s) or ) an insoluble gas (indicated by (g) or ) water (from the reaction of an acid with a base ) We will be looking at those reactions which form (or dont form) precipitates as products

8 Solubility Solubility is the ability of a compound, called the solute, to dissolve in a liquid, called the solvent. Different compounds have different solubilities. We are interested in those compounds that are not very soluble. We want to know which ones form precipitates.

9 Solubility We have a set of guidelines for the solubility of ionic compounds in water. The guidelines tell us whether or not a particular family of ionic compounds is soluble. We can use these guidelines to predict the formation of a participate in a potential double replacement reaction. If no precipitate forms, then there is no reaction.

10 Solubility Guidelines 1. Most sodium, Na +, potassium, K +, and ammonium, NH 4 +, compounds are soluble in water. 2. Most nitrate, NO 3, acetate, CH 3 COO, and chlorate, ClO 3, compounds are soluble in water. 3. Most chloride, Cl, compounds are soluble, except those of silver, AgCl, mercury(I), Hg 2 Cl 2, and lead, PbCl 2. Lead(II) chloride is soluble in hot water. 4. Most sulfate, SO 4 2, compounds are soluble, except those of barium, BaSO 4, strontium, SrSO 4, and lead, PbSO Most carbonate, CO 3 2, phosphate, PO 4 3, and silicate, SiO 3 2, compounds are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium, and ammonium. 6. Most sulfides, S 2, compounds are insoluble, except those of calcium, Ca 2+, strontium, Sr 2+, sodium, Na +, potassium, K +, and ammonium, NH 4 +.

11 Example 1. Predict the result of mixing a solution of lead(II) nitrate with sodium sulfate. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Pb 2+ NO 3 – Na + SO 4 2– Na 2 SO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Applications PbSO 4 NaNO 3 We know that two of the possible precipitates are soluble. These are already in solution. Na 2 SO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2

12 NaNO 3 Example 1. Predict the result of mixing a solution of lead(II) nitrate with sodium sulfate. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Pb 2+ NO 3 – Na + SO 4 2– Na 2 SO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Applications PbSO 4 1.Most Na +, K +, and NH 4 + compounds are soluble in water. Next, we look at the solubility guidelines

13 Example 1. Predict the result of mixing a solution of lead(II) nitrate with sodium sulfate. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Pb 2+ NO 3 – Na + SO 4 2– NaNO 3 Na 2 SO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Applications PbSO 4 2.Most NO 3 –, CH 3 COO –, and ClO 3 – compounds are soluble in water. Next, we look at the solubility guidelines

14 Example 1. Predict the result of mixing a solution of lead(II) nitrate with sodium sulfate. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Pb 2+ NO 3 – Na + SO 4 2– NaNO 3 Na 2 SO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Applications PbSO 4 3.Most Cl – compounds are soluble, except those of Ag +, Hg 2 2+, and Pb 2+. Next, we look at the solubility guidelines

15 Example 1. Predict the result of mixing a solution of lead(II) nitrate with sodium sulfate. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Pb 2+ NO 3 – Na + SO 4 2– NaNO 3 Na 2 SO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Applications PbSO 4 4.Most SO 4 2– compounds are soluble, except those of Ba 2+, Sr 2+, and Pb 2+. Next, we look at the solubility guidelines

16 Example 1. Predict the result of mixing a solution of lead(II) nitrate with sodium sulfate. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Pb 2+ NO 3 – Na + SO 4 2– NaNO 3 Na 2 SO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Applications PbSO 4 PbSO 4 will be a precipitate. Next, we look at the solubility guidelines

17 Example 1. Predict the result of mixing a solution of lead(II) nitrate with sodium sulfate. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Pb 2+ NO 3 – Na + SO 4 2– NaNO 3 Na 2 SO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Applications PbSO 4 PbSO 4 will be a precipitate. We now complete the equation.

18 Example 1. Predict the result of mixing a solution of lead(II) nitrate with sodium sulfate. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) PbSO 4 ( s ) + 2 NaNO 3 ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Pb 2+ NO 3 – Na + SO 4 2– NaNO 3 Na 2 SO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Applications PbSO 4 PbSO 4 will be a precipitate. We now complete the equation.

19 Example 2. Predict the result of mixing a solution of copper(II) nitrate with sodium chloride. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + NaCl ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Cu 2+ NO 3 – Na + Cl – CuCl 2 NaCl Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Applications NaNO 3 We know that two of the possible precipitates are soluble. These are already in solution.

20 Example 2. Predict the result of mixing a solution of copper(II) nitrate with sodium chloride. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + NaCl ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Cu 2+ NO 3 – Na + Cl – CuCl 2 NaCl Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Applications NaNO 3 1.Most Na +, K +, and NH 4 + compounds are soluble in water. Next, we look at the solubility guidelines NaNO 3

21 Example 2. Predict the result of mixing a solution of copper(II) nitrate with sodium chloride. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + NaCl ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Cu 2+ NO 3 – Na + Cl – CuCl 2 NaCl Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Applications NaNO 3 Next, we look at the solubility guidelines 2.Most NO 3 –, CH 3 COO –, and ClO 3 – compounds are soluble in water.

22 Example 2. Predict the result of mixing a solution of copper(II) nitrate with sodium chloride. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + NaCl ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Cu 2+ NO 3 – Na + Cl – CuCl 2 NaCl Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Applications NaNO 3 Next, we look at the solubility guidelines 3.Most Cl – compounds are soluble, except those of Ag +, Hg 2 2+, and Pb 2+. CuCl 2

23 Example 2. Predict the result of mixing a solution of copper(II) nitrate with sodium chloride. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + NaCl ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Cu 2+ NO 3 – Na + Cl – CuCl 2 NaCl Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Applications NaNO 3 Next, we look at the solubility guidelines CuCl 2 There is no precipitate and no reaction.

24 Example 2. Predict the result of mixing a solution of copper(II) nitrate with sodium chloride. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + NaCl ( aq ) CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Cu 2+ NO 3 – Na + Cl – CuCl 2 NaCl Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Applications NaNO 3 CuCl 2 There is no precipitate and no reaction. We now complete the equation.

25 Example 2. Predict the result of mixing a solution of copper(II) nitrate with sodium chloride. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + NaCl ( aq ) no reaction CationsAnionsPossible precipitates Cu 2+ NO 3 – Na + Cl – CuCl 2 NaCl Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Applications NaNO 3 CuCl 2 There is no precipitate and no reaction. We now complete the equation.

26 Predict the result of mixing each of the following solutions. 1. AgNO 3 ( aq ) + NaCl( aq ) 2. Cu 2 SO 4 ( aq ) + Na 2 CO 3 ( aq ) 3. BaCl 2 ( aq ) + CuSO 4 ( aq ) 4. Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 ( aq ) + Na 3 ClO 3 ( aq ) 5. FeCl 2 ( aq ) + CaS( aq ) Practice Problems AgCl( s ) + NaNO 3 ( aq ) CuCO 3 ( s ) + Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) BaSO 4 ( s ) + CuCl 2 ( aq ) no reaction FeS( s ) + CaCl 2 ( aq )


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