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Technology Education MCAS Review 2014. the material has the correct PROPERTIES & CHARACTERISTICS When choosing a material to make a product you must be.

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Presentation on theme: "Technology Education MCAS Review 2014. the material has the correct PROPERTIES & CHARACTERISTICS When choosing a material to make a product you must be."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technology Education MCAS Review 2014

2 the material has the correct PROPERTIES & CHARACTERISTICS When choosing a material to make a product you must be sure that - Is the material: Property/Characteristic:a distinctive or distinguishing feature or quality - soft or hard - flexible or non-flexible - clear or hard to see through - does it conduct electricity

3 Mechanical Properties How a material reacts when a force is applied to it Strength:Ability to withstand forces such as tension & compression Elasticity:Ability to stretch out of shape & return to the original shape Hardness:Ability to withstand scratches, dents & cuts Fatigue:Ability to withstand bending & flexing

4 Wood Wood is an organic and renewable material Wood can be used forFurniture, Fuel & Paper Plastic Plastic is a Synthetic Material: Man made - Not found in nature Plastic is formed into products using heat & pressure Most plastics are made from petroleum Metal Mined from natural rock deposits Metal can be processed into many different shapes Metal is an inorganic material

5 Paper Created by combining and bonding fibers Most common source of these fibers is wood pulp Ceramics Made from inorganic, mostly nonmetallic minerals such as clay, sand or quartz High temperatures are used to fuse these minerals into useful products Adhesives Adhesives chemically attach two or more surfaces together

6 Composites Created by combining two or more materials to form a new material This material is better than the original materials would have been on their own Composites have become a popular material for sports equipment because they are lightweight & durable Solvents Substances that are capable of dissolving or dispersing one or more other substances The most common solvent in every day life is:Water

7 Tools Instruments that increase ability to do work Hand Tools: Tools powered by human muscle Measuring Tools: Used to identify size, shape, weight, distance, density or volume

8 Holding Devices: Protects the person and their work piece from being injured or damaged when cutting, bending, drilling or hammering Power Tools: Tools powered by electricity

9 Tool Safety Rules Wear eye protection Wear heat resistant gloves when working with hot materials Do not wear clothing that may get caught in spinning equipment - Roll up sleeves Keep fingers away from moving parts of machinery Do not use tools to perform a job that it was not intended for Always cut away from yourself Use only tools that you have been instructed how to use properly Wear ear protection Wear steel-toed boots

10 Tool Safety Rules Never walk away from a running machine Concentrate on task when using equipment Do not work alone Make sure the area is clear before you start a machine Observe and follow safety signs and warnings REDDANGERYELLOWCAUTION Do not use dull tools Do not use broken tools or equipment

11 Engineering Design Process People that create technology follow this series of 8 steps

12 Step 1Step 2Step 3 Step 4 Step 5Step 6Step 7 Step 8 Identify the need or problem Engineering Design Process Research the need or problem What is the current state of the issue and current solutions? Develop possible solution(s) Brainstorm & list Select best possible solution(s) Which solutions best solve original problem? Construct a prototype Model solution in 2 or 3 dimensions Test & evaluate solution(s) Does it work? How do you know? Communicate the solution(s) Make an engineering presentation that demonstrates how solution solves the original problem Redesign (if necessary) Modify solution based on info from presentation & tests

13 InputProcessOutput Goal: What you want the system to do Resources: (7) People, tools & machines, information, time, capital, energy, materials The steps that lead to a result The result that comes out of the system Feedback Comparing the result to the original goal; adjustments are made to the inputs and/or processes Universal System Model of Technology

14 The most important resource (or input) for any technology is People Why???????? Without PEOPLE there would be no technology

15 Components of a Communication System Source Encoder Transmitter Decoder Receiver Where the information begins / where the signal is sent from Examples: voice or image Changes the information (message) into code so it can be sent (transmitted) Sends the encoded message over a channel Translates the encoded message into useful information so that it can be understood Takes in the encoded message sent through the channel by the transmitter Channel:The medium or link through which a signal is sent from the transmitter to the receiver Examples: wire cables, fiber-optic cables, wireless wave communication

16 Many communication systems often have 2 additional components that allow information to be saved so that it can be accessed when needed Storage:Message is saved for later use Retrieval:Message is recalled when needed Examples:Voic / Telephone answering machine Components of a Communication System Books / Notebooks iPods / MP3 Players / Cameras CDs / DVDs / Blu-rays Video Games Computer hard drives / Flash drives

17 Icon/Symbol: Icons & Symbols A picture or image that is used to represent something else Allows people to communicate without using words

18 Comparison of Custom Manufacturing & Mass Production Custom ManufacturingMass Production Usually made in limited numbersSame item produced many times Made exactly as the person it is being made for wants it Not made exactly how a person wants it Made from start to finish by same worker (or small group of workers) Workers only work on one part of the product Worker(s) is/are usually a skilled craftsmen Product is often machine made Manufacturing: Process of converting raw materials into physical goods (products)

19 Custom Manufacturing Advantages & Disadvantages Custom Manufacturing Advantages Custom Manufacturing Disadvantages You can get the product exactly how you want it Usually has a higher cost Product is unique – no one has exactly the same one Product takes longer to make Product is not easily replaceable Mass Production Advantages & Disadvantages Mass Production Advantages Mass Production Disadvantages Product can be made quicklyWill not be made exactly how you want it Product can be made at a lower cost Product will not be unique

20 Mass Production One of the first products to be mass produced was… The Automobile

21 Henry Fords 4 Main Principles of Mass Production Reduction of Wasted Effort: Henry Fords goal was to have his cars produced by workers without wasting time & effort

22 Henry Fords 4 Main Principles of Mass Production Interchangeable Parts: Fords idea was to use a single part in as many different places in the car as possible to reduce cost Continuous Flow: Car was constantly moving through assembly stations while the workers stayed in one place Division of Labor: Workers were specialized & focused on one task when building car

23 Henry Fords 4 Main Principles of Mass Production Interchangeable Parts Continuous Flow Division of Labor Reduction of Wasted Effort

24 Manufacturing Organizations Groups of people or departments are responsible for specific parts of the manufacturing process In many companies the overall process is led by the CEO (Chief Executive Officer) CEO works with other leaders in the company to make sure that quality products are made and sold Marketing: Makes sure company understands wants & needs of customer Helps determine what types of products should be made

25 Research & Development: Researches & develops plan to make product after consulting with Marketing Meets with others department leaders to get plan for product approved Production: After the idea has been approved, this department mass produces the product Quality Control: Makes sure the product meets the appropriate standards when being produced

26 Trains workers & designs work areas to make sure that the workers are safe Safety: Sales: Sells the product (can sell directly to the public but usually they sell to companies that sell to the public ) Distribution: Transports the product to where consumers can purchase

27 Robots Manufacturing companies have found robots to be very useful even though they are expensive

28 Robots Take their instructions from a computer that has been programmed by a human Can be programmed to do different tasks Do jobs that are dangerous, boring or unpleasant for people

29 Production Processes Steps taken to convert raw materials into products Process Raw MaterialProduct

30 Separating: Removing pieces of material to make it the size & shape you want Cutting the object to make it the size you want Sawing: Makes a holeDrilling: Shaping metal or wood dowelsTurning:

31 Forming: Changing the shape of the material – no material is added or taken away Material is shaped by forcing part of it into a different position - metal & wood Liquid material is poured into a mold, it takes on the shape of the mold as it hardens - metal, glass, plastic or clay Bending: Casting: Shaping metal by heating it and then hammering it back into shape Forging:

32 Softened material is squeezed through a small opening (pipe & wire) Extruding: Combining: Joining materials together to make finished product Using small piece of metal or plastic to hold parts together (Nails, screws, staples, nuts & bolts, rivets, etc.) Mechanical Fastening:

33 Combining: Joining materials together to make finished product Using small piece of metal or plastic to hold parts together (Nails, screws, staples, nuts & bolts, rivets, etc.) Heating materials so that they soften & flow into each other (Welding & Soldering) Mechanical Fastening: Heat Fastening:

34 Holds things together without a separate fastener (CD Case) Snap Joint Fastening: Using adhesive to stick parts together Gluing:

35 Finishing: The last step in making a product - used to improve its appearance and/or performance To make flatSmoothing: Paints, clear finishes or plasticCoatings: To make glossyPolishing:

36 House Construction A House… Provides people with shelter & storage

37 Foundation: The part of the house that rests on the ground and supports the upper structure All buildings require a solid foundation or the building cannot be constructed properly Subfloor: First layer of flooring nailed to the floor joists Usually sheets of plywood

38 Wall Studs:Pieces of lumber, usually 2 x 4s, used for the framework of walls Sheathing:Nailed to wall framework to enclose structure on the outside. Made of plywood or particleboard

39 Roof: Keeps precipitation out Stabilizes the walls Roof Decking: Sheets of lumber (usually plywood) nailed to the outside of the rafters (or trusses) Asphalt Shingles are nailed to the roof decking over a layer of heavy asphalt paper – Shingles weatherproof the roof Roof Shingles:

40 Cross Section View of House If you want to remove a wall in a house you must make sure that it is not a WEIGHT BEARING wall

41 Siding: Put on the outside for protection from the weather - attached to sheathing - made of wood, metal, brick, vinyl, etc. Insulation: Material used to keep heat or cold from leaving or entering a building Rolls made to fit between floor joists, ceiling joists and wall studs Most popular form is fiberglass

42 Drywall:Inside covering of walls and ceilings, made from plaster and sturdy paper (commonly referred to as Sheetrock) Sheets are screwed to the walls and ceilings - cracks & screws are covered with tape & spackling (joint compound)

43 A structure built to span a physical obstacle such as a road, valley, railroad track, river, or any other body of water Bridge: Forces Upon Bridges A force that pushes Compression A force that pulls Tension A force that twists Torsion A force acting across any beam or structural element Shear Behavior of a structural element subjected to an external load applied to it Bending

44 Most common type of bridge Oldest type of bridge (log over stream) Commonly used on roadways that cross over highways or other roads Frequently supported by piers partway along the span because of the heavy weight of the beam Can span distances up to 250 feet Beam Bridge

45 Arch Bridge First Arch Bridges were made of wedge shaped stones locked in a curve (Keystone) Arch bridges distribute weight sideways and down around the curve

46 Used to cross very wide spans ( ft) Suspension Bridge Bridge is suspended (hangs) from large vertical cables

47 Transportation Technology Systems & devices that move goods & people from one place to another across or through Land, Air, Water & Space Travel over land in a car, bus, train, bicycle, motorcycle, subway, etc. Land Transportation:

48 Used for personal land transportationAutomobile: Mass Transportation:Moves many people at one time and is available to the general public Mass transportation is sometimes slower & less convenient than personal transportation but it is cheaper

49 Move much of our countrys freight Trucks: Railroads earn most of their money by hauling freight - they are used to deliver bulky goods Trains: Trains also carry passengers Operated by AMTRAK - intercity passenger railroad In the US trains carry less than 1% of all intercity passengers

50 High Speed Trains: All-electric Travel at mph Maglev Trains: Magnetic levitation - doesnt touch the ground - no wheels Propelled by magnets Floats 1 inch above its track - produces very little vibration & are very quiet Expensive - so only a few experimental guide ways have been built in the US

51 Water has provided transportation routes for centuries Water Transportation: Passenger ships/boats transport people Cargo ships transport things (oil, grain, iron ore, automobiles, etc.) Ships deliver most of the overseas cargo leaving or entering the US Usually the least expensive way to transport goods

52 Airplanes:Most important part of our air transportation system Because many planes are in the air at one time - air travel is our most complex transportation system Some planes carry only cargo Cannot carry as much cargo as a ship or train Air transportation is very expensive

53 Helicopters:Aircraft with one or two rotors that allow it to lift straight up

54 Space Transportation: NASA is responsible for regulating and directing the entire US space program Currently consists of unmanned vehicles for exploration Space vehicles take us beyond the earth

55 Transmission Transfers power from the engine to the axles and wheels: Structure and support: Propulsion: Guidance: Suspension: Control: GPS Frame Engine Steering Springs & shock absorbers Brakes & Steering Navigation: Automobile Subsystems:When all subsystems work together the car functions properly

56 Have inputs, process, outputs & feedback Universal Systems Model of a City Bus System Inputs: Process: Output: Feedback: Goal (Safe arrival at scheduled stops), Buses, people to operate buses, fuel to provide energy, schedules, passengers Loading passengers, driving the bus Safe arrival at scheduled stops Comments from satisfied customers Transportation Systems

57 Aerodynamics The study of the motion of the air when it interacts with a moving object

58 Lift: Force:A push or pull in a specific direction Weight: Force caused by the gravitational attraction of the Earth on the plane Force created by the engines that move the plane through the air Drag: Force that opposes (tries to stop) the planes motion through the air Thrust: Force created by a solid object (plane) moving through a fluid (air) WEIGHT For the plane to fly, its LIFT must be greater than its

59 The shape of the airplanes wings is what creates the LIFT that makes the airplane fly The flat surface of the bottom of the wing means that there is more friction so the air moves slower - this means that there is more pressure under the wing The curved surface of the top of the wing means that there is less friction so the air moves faster - this means that there is less pressure over the wing

60 Weight: Force caused by the gravitational attraction of the Earth on the car Force created by the engine to move the car through the air Drag: Force that opposes (tries to stop) the cars motion through the air Thrust: Drag Thrust Spoiler: Reduces Lift (opposite of the wings of an airplane) Forces on a Race Car

61 Bioengineering Technology: Technology that is used to analyze & solve problems related to human health Considered the fastest growing technology today Adaptive & Assistive Devices: Products that help maintain, increase or improve an ordinary human function Wheelchairs, Eyeglasses, Contact Lenses, Braces, Artificial Limbs, Bionics

62 Irradiation: Process in which food is briefly exposed to a source of radiation (x-rays or electron beam). This cooks the food slightly, kills parasites, insects, bacteria & controls molds Foods have a longer shelf life and are less likely to cause food poisoning Biofuels: Fuels made from agricultural products Reduce our dependency on oil as a source of energy – cleaner Any plant that produces sugar or starch can be used as a biofuel

63 Integrated Pest Management: An attempt to reduce dependency on harmful chemical pesticides Alternative solutions to the pest problem are researched before any chemicals are used Using strains of crops that are resistant to a particular pest Using other animals as a natural form of pest control Chemicals are used as a last resort and are used sparingly

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