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Presentation on theme: "CONSTRUCTION."— Presentation transcript:


2 Foundation A foundation supports the weight of a structure, sometimes called substructures Three parts of foundation : earth, footing and vertical supports Spread footing is used for hard grounds Piles are used is the ground is soft, or the site is marshy or under water

3 Superstructure It is the part of a structure that is above the ground (exceptions: tunnel or pipeline) Mass Superstructures: large masses of materials -- Dams and monuments Bearing Wall Superstructures: enclose a space with walls -- castle Framed Superstructures: a framework to support the building – most buildings today. Lumber, steel, concrete are used to build a framed superstructure


5 Types of Structures Bridges Beam bridge Arch bridge Cantilever bridge
One beam to cross a distance Arch bridge Use of an arch Aqueduct is a raised channel to carry water from one place to another Cantilever bridge Two diving boards facing each other The sections are firmly attached at their ends Another section may be added to provide a link if the sections do not meet Huge force to support each end --- Double cantilever bridge Suspension bridge They bridge wide spans Use of steel cables to hang the deck(roadbed) from towers


7 Types of Structures Buildings Four kinds of building construction
Residential Commercial Institutional Industrial Aesthetic design and beauty are important in the first three kinds Land costs for the industrial buildings are fairly low Lumber is building houses –- dimensional lumber --- 8’ by 2” by 4” Insulations(fiberglass, plastic foam), electrical wiring, and plumbing pipes are placed in the framework Plaster boards (sheetrock) are sheets of plaster covered with heavy paper --- inside walls Composites or plywood panels are used for outside walls. They may be covered with wood or aluminum siding

8 Types of Structures Tunnels
Penalized construction --- parts of houses are built in a factory Apartment houses, institutional and commercial buildings are framed with steel or reinforced concrete Beams support the load of the floors and walls Columns transfer the weight from the beams to the foundation Reinforced concrete beams and columns are cast in place at the site Tunnels Their idea is probably taken from an animal burrow Tunnels under water and through mountains have shortened travel routes since ancient times Tunneling shield holds the earth up while tunnel is being dug Tunnels dug into rock are drilled and blasted by explosives Shot Crete prevents water from seeping through the rock Tunnels in soft ground can be machined using large cutters – 15’

9 Types of Structures Fort McHenry Tunnels
Tube making begins with steel panels The panels are welded together to form a shell plate Shell plate is wrapped around a specially designed reel to make a module Sixteen modules (eight for each tube) are joined. They form one section of the double-barreled tube. Each tube holds two lanes of roadway. Dam plates seal each end of the tube

10 Types of Structures Roads
Modern road building started in late 1700s with the ideas of a Scotsman named John Loudon McAdam --- hard soil + stone + tar McAdam roads were higher in the center than at the edges A material used as a surface of roads these days is named after him --- macadam Since early 1900s, roads have been built of concrete or macadam Road construction Choose the route Smoothen the ground by bulldozers Press down the soil by heavy rollers Cover the soil with stone Make a pavement of about 1’ thickness of concrete, macadam or asphalt Center barriers, good lighting and traffic control devices

11 Types of Structures Other Structures Renovation
Airports, canals, dams and pipelines etc Large construction companies often have different division for different structures Renovation It is the process of rebuilding an existing building Carried out for a change in the style of the building or to fulfill the repairing needs of the building Renovation is less costly than demolishing a structure and building it all over again

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