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Presentation on theme: "L04 EDU5810 RB/241. DISCUSSION ON MID TERM TEST EDU5810 RB/242."— Presentation transcript:

1 L04 EDU5810 RB/241


3 1.History of EP 2.Methodological approach in EP 3.Philosophy/ideology approach EP CONTENTS 3EDU5810/30

4 Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world EDU5810 RB/244 WHEREAS acknowledging that knowledge is the key determinant of the destiny and survival of the nation, Education Act 1996.

5 The aims of life have influenced social and educational planning. It centers on the tension between individual freedom and societal development. The Development of Educational Policy and Planning Courtesy : Mohd Majid Konting, UPM, 2011. EDU5810 RB/245

6 According to Oplatka, (2005) that Participating in an educational-change process in any capacity can be very worrying and tiring. It can also be professionally and personally exciting and rewarding. (Cited in Wedell, M, (2009), p.178.) EDU5810 RB/246

7 During ancient times, Sparta developed an educational system to suit especially the defence, social and economic needs of the society. Plato in The Republic proposes that education is for the society; individuals should be educated to become members of the society. In China, the examination system has been used to screen for civil service positions, and this practice lasted for millennia. Courtesy : Mohd Majid Konting, UPM, 2011. EDU5810 RB/247

8 More systematic educational planning began when the Union of Socialist Soviet Russia (USSR) developed a Five Year Development Plan in 1923, after the revolution in 1917. USSR started the establishment of an educational planning unit as a state mechanism in carrying out her development plan. Courtesy : Mohd Majid Konting, UPM, 2011. EDU5810 RB/248

9 As a result of WWII, most nation states, especially the European and North American, consider educational planning as a necessity and as a mechanism to solve post-war related problems such as population growth due to the baby boom. There was a high demand for jobs, and thus job related training. Education Act introduced in England in 1944, gave the Local Education Authorities (LEA) the mandate to plan their own education. Courtesy : Mohd Majid Konting, UPM, 2011. EDU5810 RB/249

10 In 1953, France introduced her own National Planning, including education. For Malaysia, it was the Razak Report 1955 & Education Ordinance 1957, the Rahman Talib Report in 1961 & Education Act 1962 and the Laporan JK Kabinet 1979, Education Act 1996. In fact, the number of educational planning centres mushroomed after WWII, providing a much wider and systematic planning of education to suit local needs. The Asian Institute of Educational Planning and Administration was established in New Delhi in 1962. The International Institute of Educational Planning (IIEP), UNESCO was established in 1962. Courtesy : Mohd Majid Konting, UPM, 2011. EDU5810 RB/2410

11 Educational policy making in the first half of the twentieth century [in the UK] took place against a grand backdrop: War fed an appetite for change; troubled times reinforced the need to ensure that the nations principal resource – the skills of its people – were able to meet the demands of the emerging global economy; and above all perhaps, the need for those with political power to claim that they governed in the interests of all the people. Bates et al (2011, p.33) EDU5810 RB/2411

12 The promise of practical reason for higher education is not just the development of better judges, doctors, and teachers, though we believe that it does foster such outcomes. It promises to stir and support the development of practical wisdom among students of all fields who prepare for a wide variety of careers and callings. Sullivan, W.M., and Rosin, M.S., A New Agenda for Higher Education, 2008, p. xvii. Practical Reason as an Educational Agenda EDU5810 RB/2412

13 Courtesy : Mohd Majid Konting, UPM, 2011. Thus, early educational planning has been characteristically based on: i) Demographic approach, ii) Social approach, iii) Economic approach, iv) Political approach as well as v) Manpower approaches. EDU5810 RB/2413 Methodological Approach of Educational Planning

14 Courtesy : Mohd Majid Konting, UPM, 2011. However, the growth and expansion of democracy and capitalism later stimulated economic based educational planning approaches such as: i) cost benefit and ii) cost effectiveness. This later movement was echoed by the success of corporate planning especially in the production sector such as automobile production in Detroit. Educational planning reached its golden era from 1973 to 1981. EDU5810 RB/2414

15 Courtesy : Mohd Majid Konting, UPM, 2011. Based on states: 1. Socialist Nations 2. Capitalist Nations 3. Developing Nations Philosophical Approach of Educational Planning EDU5810 RB/2415

16 Courtesy : Mohd Majid Konting, UPM, 2011. Socialist Nations Led by the USSR and China It emphasized manpower development Used a centralized, top-down, directive approach Collapsed, became decentralized, since 1989 EDU5810 RB/2416

17 Led by Western Europe & North American states Used the market economy approach Due to the urgent demand for reconstruction of the state economy and baby boom as a result of WWII, required a huge sum of financing Decentralized, indicative and a loose central government control Capitalist Nations EDU5810 RB/2417

18 Mostly achieved their independence in the 1950s and 1960s. A need for nation-building. At first, model their EP on the manpower-socialist approach Dependent on their former colonial masters due to the shortage of expertise Lately, followed the market approach due to the collapse of the socialist model Courtesy : Mohd Majid Konting, UPM, 2011. Developing Nations EDU5810 RB/2418

19 1. Planning for change is more difficult than early expectations 2. Innovation takes time than expected. 3. Difficult to achieve the planned objective especially when it is big in size, top-down implementation, but it seems to be easier for reform and innovation to take place at the bottom - the school level. 4. The collapse of beliefs that innovation is a means of control by the state which dictates what students ought to learn. Adapted:,Courtesy : Mohd Majid Konting, UPM, 2011. Lessons from the History of EP EDU5810 RB/2419

20 16 Education Community Weighs In on NCLB Flexibility Posted on September 23, 2011 by Cameron Brenchley This isnt just the right thing to do for our kids -– its the right thing to do for our country, said President Obama earlier today when he announced details on how states can get relief from provisions of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act- or No Child Left Behind (NCLB). EDU5810 RB/2420 Future Direction of EP

21 We want to thank the Administration for recognizing the hard work that states do under the leadership of their respective state boards of education to help make students college- and career-ready, NASBE Executive Director Brenda Welburn said. The law passed 10 years ago no longer reflects the progress states have made preparing Americas students for life beyond high school. It is simply unrealistic and unrelated to the work of states today. National Association of State Boards of Education EDU5810 RB/2421

22 Speech by the Prime Minister Dato Sri Mohd. Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak Introducing the Motion to Table the Tenth Malaysia Plan on 10 June 2010 at 11.30 am, para.63 Competition for talent has intensified, many countries particularly developed nations, have adopted comprehensive and open policies in attracting the best talent including Malaysians. A skilled and knowledgeable workforce is the cutting edge of a nations competitiveness. In this regard, the Government will implement holistic measures to strengthen education and training systems, starting from early childhood to tertiary education. Aside from providing the best teaching and learning infrastructure, the Government will also ensure that the quality of teachers and educators are of a high level. Tenth Malaysia Plan EDU5810 RB/2422

23 Education is one of the most critical drivers for our transformation from a middle- to high- income nation due its impact on productivity and human capital development. It is also an engine of growth in its own right. The sector contributes approximately RM27 billion or 4 percent of GNI in 2009. There are several important opportunities for improvement as the current education sector is filled with sub-scale SMEs, has limited international focus and lacks harmonised regulations. Question: Reflect which planning approach? Education EDU5810 RB/2423

24 Education EDU5810 RB/2424 Education is a major contributor to the development of our social and economic capital. It inspires creativity and fosters innovation; provides our youth with the necessary skills to be able to compete in the modern labor market; and a key driver of growth in the economy. And as this government put in place measures under the New Economic Model, Economic Transformation Plan and Government Transformation Plan to place Malaysia firmly on the path of development, we must make sure that our education system continuous to progress in tandem. By doing so, our country will continue to keep pace in an increasingly competitive global Economy.

25 This government is committed in transforming Malaysian education system in the next one-and –half decade. Our goal, and the purpose of the education system, is to equip our students holistically to allow them to succeed in the 21st century, with all of the opportunities and challenges that this new era presents. In order to compete with the best in the world, our education system must develop young Malaysians who are knowledgeable, think critically and creatively, have leadership skills and are able to communicate with the rest of the world. Just as importantly, our students must be imbued with values, ethics and a sense of nationhood, enabling them to make the right choices for themselves, their families and the country with a view towards enduring and overcoming lifes inevitable challenges. EDU5810 RB/2425

26 The Seven approaches of EP are still relevant -break- EDU5810 RB/2426

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