Presentation on theme: "TANZANIA EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT AND ROLE OF ICT IN EDUCATION."— Presentation transcript:
TANZANIA EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT AND ROLE OF ICT IN EDUCATION
Educational reforms in Tanzania For more than a decade the Government has been implementing a number of educational reforms which include development of policies, programmes and plans geared towards revitalisation of the quality of education at all levels. Strategies to improve delivery of education were developed in order to achieve the set goals, objectives and targets
Contd…. In 1997, the Government developed the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) aimed at putting into action the Education and Training Policy of The Programme was revised in 2001 and 2008, to redress the overall challenges related to the provision of quality education.
Contd.. Some of the key challenges: poor quality of education services shortage of teachers unqualified teachers inadequate teaching and learning resources inadequate funds and low enrollment. The revised ESDP also addressed the increasing demand on capacity development, and the need to mobilize and coordinate resources for planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of activities within the education sector.
Contd.. In order to respond to the afore mentioned challenges, the Government of Tanzania launched and implemented the Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP: ) and Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP: 2004 – 2009 phase I) now in phase II (SEDP ). The overall objective of the plans is to improve access with equity, quality, management and delivery of education.
Implementation of SEDP Currently the Government is implementing Secondary Education Development Plan Phase II (SEDP ) as one of its priority educational initiatives SEDP-II was preceded by SEDP phase I (SEDP ) The overall objectives of the plan is to improve access with equity, quality, management and delivery of secondary education
Contd…. Implementation of the SEDP is the Government’s endeavour to respond to some national policies and programmes (e.g ETP, 1995 and ESDP 2008) and International Declarations and Protocols (e.g EFA,MDGs) which emphasis on revitalization of quality of education.
Education is considered as a key agent of development and is the right which continues to be a global agenda anchored in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The declaration advocates that, every person is born with a human right to education and therefore all people should enjoy equal educational opportunities
Achievements of SEDP implementation The Government experienced a rapid and massive expansion of secondary education enrollment since the inception of the SEDP in With reference to SEDP Phase I ( ) objectives, remarkable achievements have been realized in access and equity whereby enrolment in Form I-VI increased from 524,325 in 2005 to 1,789,547 in The number of schools increased from 1,745 in 2005 to 4,367 in June 2011 (BEST, 2011).
Challenges Improved access and equity in schools has posed a number of challenges related to the provision of quality secondary education. One of the main challenges is the low quality of teaching and learning of Science, Mathematics and English particularly in ordinary level secondary education. These subjects are poorly performed in the national examinations.
Factors attributed to poor performance shortage of qualified and competent teachers; inadequate teaching and learning materials, which includes laboratories and laboratory equipment and chemicals; the teaching methodology and teachers do not inspire students to opt for these subjects in higher studies
ICT use in Education The Government acknowledges the potential of ICT in addressing the educational challenges in the sector The Government commitment in CT integration in Education is shown by developing the following policies: Tanzania Vision 2025, National Information Communications Technologies Policy of Tanzania (2003), National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (2005), Education and Training Policy (1995) which is under review, ICT Policy for Basic Education (2007).
Contd….. The potential of ICT is based on the fact that, it helps teachers to assume the role of facilitating students’ learning rather than spoon-feeding them and makes learning more learner-centred (Kennedy, 2005)
Contd…… Through the use of ICT in the classroom setting, teachers become flexible and they are likely to employ varied teaching and learning strategies, which could motivate students to participate in the learning process (Pedro, Enrique, Ernesto, and Lucio,2004).
Contd…. This could also liberate students from routine tasks and empower them to focus on creative and cognitive learning tasks and ICT can be used as an empowering tool that gives both students and teachers opportunities to initiate new ideas and realize individual potential and develop self- actualization (Pachler, 2005)
ICT and learning theories Teaching with ICT in the classroom is very dependent on the teachers ’ understanding of learning theories, which teachers can put into practice using ICT in the classroom to achieve instructional objectives (Leask & Pachler; Tomoi in Malaba, 2005).
Contd… Teachers need familiarity with good teaching practices embedded in how they teach and how students learn (Leask and Pachler in Malaba 2005). This enables teachers to decide about how to use ICT effectively in their teaching. Through the application of learning theories, teachers can select appropriate learning experiences for learners (Tomoi in Malaba 2005)
Based on the highlighted challenges in delivery of secondary education, teachers are central in ensuring that they take lead in breaking through this challenging situation and prepare students and themselves for the 21 st century challenges.
Reflection Does ICT replace teacher or the role of a teacher in the classroom?