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Unit 11 A Friend in Need(Book4). Contents I Background I Background II Questions II Questions III Text structure III Text structure IV The Writing style.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 11 A Friend in Need(Book4). Contents I Background I Background II Questions II Questions III Text structure III Text structure IV The Writing style."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 11 A Friend in Need(Book4)

2 Contents I Background I Background II Questions II Questions III Text structure III Text structure IV The Writing style IV The Writing style V Language points V Language points VI Discussion VI Discussion VII Organization and development VII Organization and development VIII Homework VIII Homework

3 I Background About the author: About the author: Somerset Maugham ( ) Somerset Maugham ( ) British novelist, playwright and short story writer. He was best known for his novels, and his novel Of Human Bondage (1915) has strong autobiographical elements. British novelist, playwright and short story writer. He was best known for his novels, and his novel Of Human Bondage (1915) has strong autobiographical elements.

4 About the author Besides, Maugham was expert in short story writing, which was known for plots and story telling skills. He has written 100 short stories, dealing with spies, and the domestic and overseas life of the English people, of which our text was one. Besides, Maugham was expert in short story writing, which was known for plots and story telling skills. He has written 100 short stories, dealing with spies, and the domestic and overseas life of the English people, of which our text was one.

5 Culture background Bridge: any of a group of card games including Bridge Whist, Auction Bridge, and Contract Bridge, all derived from Whist. The name Whist seems to have been first used in the early 17th century to describe a card game that had evolved from several other games, principally Triumph. By the mid-18th century Whist had become the preeminent card game in both Europe and America. The introduction of the exposed, or dummy, hand in the 1870s led to the development of Bridge (the name Bridge Whist was coined later to distinguish it from Auction Bridge). By the early 1900s, however, Auction Bridge, which introduced competitive bidding, had rendered Bridge Whist obsolete. The final refinements that resulted in the modern game of Contract Bridge were made in the 1920s; by 1929 it had become the standard game. Bridge: any of a group of card games including Bridge Whist, Auction Bridge, and Contract Bridge, all derived from Whist. The name Whist seems to have been first used in the early 17th century to describe a card game that had evolved from several other games, principally Triumph. By the mid-18th century Whist had become the preeminent card game in both Europe and America. The introduction of the exposed, or dummy, hand in the 1870s led to the development of Bridge (the name Bridge Whist was coined later to distinguish it from Auction Bridge). By the early 1900s, however, Auction Bridge, which introduced competitive bidding, had rendered Bridge Whist obsolete. The final refinements that resulted in the modern game of Contract Bridge were made in the 1920s; by 1929 it had become the standard game.

6 Culture background The game is played by four players arranged into two partnerships. The full pack of 52 cards is used, and the play comprises 13 tricks, each of which consists of one card per player. The two partnerships first bid to establish which side will contract to take a given number of tricks in its chosen trump suit or with no-trump. A trump suit is one of which any card beats any card of the other suits; no-trump is a situation in which no suit overcomes the one that is led. Suits are ranked, in ascending order, clubs, diamonds, hearts, spades, with no-trump outranking any suit. Thus, the lowest possible contract is one club, which means that a book of six tricks plus one must be taken with clubs as trumps. Two clubs means eight tricks, and so on up to seven clubs (13 tricks). The highest possible contract is seven no-trump. The game is played by four players arranged into two partnerships. The full pack of 52 cards is used, and the play comprises 13 tricks, each of which consists of one card per player. The two partnerships first bid to establish which side will contract to take a given number of tricks in its chosen trump suit or with no-trump. A trump suit is one of which any card beats any card of the other suits; no-trump is a situation in which no suit overcomes the one that is led. Suits are ranked, in ascending order, clubs, diamonds, hearts, spades, with no-trump outranking any suit. Thus, the lowest possible contract is one club, which means that a book of six tricks plus one must be taken with clubs as trumps. Two clubs means eight tricks, and so on up to seven clubs (13 tricks). The highest possible contract is seven no-trump.

7 Culture background Tactics form a large part of bridge, with many subtleties in the play, including false-carding and occasional bluff bids ( psyches ) to confuse the opposition. The declarer plans the play of two hands in concert. His chances for success depends upon the distribution of the opponents unseen cards, and he endeavours to develop the play based on his assumptions about the location of those cards. The defenders, however, do not know what cards their partners hold and must rely on information gained during bidding and through leads. Tactics form a large part of bridge, with many subtleties in the play, including false-carding and occasional bluff bids ( psyches ) to confuse the opposition. The declarer plans the play of two hands in concert. His chances for success depends upon the distribution of the opponents unseen cards, and he endeavours to develop the play based on his assumptions about the location of those cards. The defenders, however, do not know what cards their partners hold and must rely on information gained during bidding and through leads.

8 II Discussion Judging from the title, what do you expect the text to be about? Judging from the title, what do you expect the text to be about? What are some of the qualities you look for in a real friend? What are some of the qualities you look for in a real friend? Have you got a friend like that? If you have, tell us something about your friend. Have you got a friend like that? If you have, tell us something about your friend.

9 III Text structure Part one(Line1 3): the first impressions of a person are not always right. Part one(Line1 3): the first impressions of a person are not always right. Part two(Line4 10): the accident of Hyde Burton make me surprised. Part two(Line4 10): the accident of Hyde Burton make me surprised. Part three(Line11 104):the surprising memorable ending demonstates the writer s original point admirably and significantly. Part three(Line11 104):the surprising memorable ending demonstates the writer s original point admirably and significantly.

10 IV The Writing style It is not in the usual chronological order but flashback is used. It is not in the usual chronological order but flashback is used. The author used the first person to narrate the story. He succeeds in choosing details that are relevant to his purpose and the effect he wants to create. The author used the first person to narrate the story. He succeeds in choosing details that are relevant to his purpose and the effect he wants to create. He uses an ironic title against what the reader expected. He uses an ironic title against what the reader expected.

11 V Language points 1. shrug: v. raise one s shoulders slightly ignorance or indifference 1. shrug: v. raise one s shoulders slightly ignorance or indifference e.g. I asked her where Sam was, but she just shrugged her shoulders. e.g. I asked her where Sam was, but she just shrugged her shoulders. We can t just shrug these objections off. We can t just shrug these objections off. 2. startling: adj. very unusual or surprising 2. startling: adj. very unusual or surprising e.g. Paddy s words had a startling effect on the children. e.g. Paddy s words had a startling effect on the children. 3. mild: adj. having a gentle character and not easily getting angry 3. mild: adj. having a gentle character and not easily getting angry e.g. Joe was a mild man who rarely raised his voice. e.g. Joe was a mild man who rarely raised his voice. 4. spicy: adj. exciting or interesting (because somewhat improper) 4. spicy: adj. exciting or interesting (because somewhat improper) e.g. a spicy rumour e.g. a spicy rumour 5. namesake: n. someone with the same name as someone else 5. namesake: n. someone with the same name as someone else e.g. Like his famous namesake, young Nelson had a brave, adventurous spirit. e.g. Like his famous namesake, young Nelson had a brave, adventurous spirit.

12 Language points 6. uncanny: adj. very strange and difficult to explain 6. uncanny: adj. very strange and difficult to explain e.g. an uncanny coincidence e.g. an uncanny coincidence 7. sip: v. drink something slowly, taking very small mouthfuls 7. sip: v. drink something slowly, taking very small mouthfuls e.g. She was sitting at the bar sipping a Martini. e.g. She was sitting at the bar sipping a Martini. Frank sipped at his whisky thoughtfully. Frank sipped at his whisky thoughtfully. 8. chuckle: v. laugh quietly 8. chuckle: v. laugh quietly e.g. What are you chuckling about? e.g. What are you chuckling about? 9. candid: adj. directly truthful, even when the truth may be unpleasant or embarrassing 9. candid: adj. directly truthful, even when the truth may be unpleasant or embarrassing e.g. The Governor s brutally candid assessment struck a new blow to Mr Major s reputation. e.g. The Governor s brutally candid assessment struck a new blow to Mr Major s reputation.

13 Language points 10. vacancy: n. an unfilled position in an organization 10. vacancy: n. an unfilled position in an organization e.g. vacancies for drivers e.g. vacancies for drivers Judge Ginsburg is to fill the vacancy on the US supreme court. Judge Ginsburg is to fill the vacancy on the US supreme court. 11. reflection: n. careful thought, or an idea or opinion based on this 11. reflection: n. careful thought, or an idea or opinion based on this e.g. A moment s reflection will show the stupidity of this argument. e.g. A moment s reflection will show the stupidity of this argument. It was interesting to hear her reflections on the situation in the Far East. It was interesting to hear her reflections on the situation in the Far East. 12. benign: adj. kind and gentle 12. benign: adj. kind and gentle e.g. He shook his head in benign amusement. e.g. He shook his head in benign amusement. 13. cocktail: n. an alcoholic drink made from a mixture of different drinks 13. cocktail: n. an alcoholic drink made from a mixture of different drinks e.g. cocktail party e.g. cocktail party

14 Language points 14. spacious: adj. having or providing much space; roomy 14. spacious: adj. having or providing much space; roomy e.g. a spacious, comfortably furnished living room e.g. a spacious, comfortably furnished living room 15. instinct: n. a natural tendency or ability to behave or react in a particular way without having to learn it or think about it 15. instinct: n. a natural tendency or ability to behave or react in a particular way without having to learn it or think about it e.g. an instinct for self-preservation e.g. an instinct for self-preservation My instinct would be to wait and see. My instinct would be to wait and see. 16. insane: adj. completely stupid or crazy, often in a way that is dangerous 16. insane: adj. completely stupid or crazy, often in a way that is dangerous e.g. I don t know what made Sarah marry him she must have been totally insane. e.g. I don t know what made Sarah marry him she must have been totally insane. The whole idea sounds absolutely insane to me. The whole idea sounds absolutely insane to me. 17. beacon: n. fixed light to warn or guide people, ships or aircraft 17. beacon: n. fixed light to warn or guide people, ships or aircraft

15 Language points 18. funk: v. avoid doing something because it is difficult, or because you are afraid to do it 18. funk: v. avoid doing something because it is difficult, or because you are afraid to do it e.g. He funked telling her he had lost his job. e.g. He funked telling her he had lost his job. 19. constitution: n. the ability of your body to fight disease and illness 19. constitution: n. the ability of your body to fight disease and illness e.g. have a strong/good/weak constitution e.g. have a strong/good/weak constitution 20. dissipation: n. pleasurable but dangerous living 20. dissipation: n. pleasurable but dangerous living e.g. a life of luxury and dissipation e.g. a life of luxury and dissipation 21. fizz: n. infml. Champagne 21. fizz: n. infml. Champagne 22. harbour: n. place of shelter for ships 22. harbour: n. place of shelter for ships e.g. We reached the harbour at sunset. e.g. We reached the harbour at sunset. 23. remittance: n. an amount of money that you send by post to pay for something 23. remittance: n. an amount of money that you send by post to pay for something e.g. We will forward the goods on remittance of 20. e.g. We will forward the goods on remittance of 20.

16 Language points 24. go (all) to pieces: lose the ability to think or act clearly because of fear, sorrow, etc. 24. go (all) to pieces: lose the ability to think or act clearly because of fear, sorrow, etc. e.g. When he heard the sad news, he went all to pieces. e.g. When he heard the sad news, he went all to pieces. 25. be taken aback: be shocked or confused, especially by something unpleasant or unexpected 25. be taken aback: be shocked or confused, especially by something unpleasant or unexpected e.g. Your request took me aback. e.g. Your request took me aback. The teacher was quite taken aback by his student s resort. The teacher was quite taken aback by his student s resort. 26. for my own part: as far as I am concerned, speaking for myself 26. for my own part: as far as I am concerned, speaking for myself e.g. For my own part, I don t mind having one more lesson on ecosystem. e.g. For my own part, I don t mind having one more lesson on ecosystem. For my own part, I m in favour of having a telephone at home. For my own part, I m in favour of having a telephone at home. 27. in accordance with: in a way that agrees with 27. in accordance with: in a way that agrees with e.g. She did everything in accordance with the regulations. e.g. She did everything in accordance with the regulations. He was buried in his hometown, in accordance with his wishes. He was buried in his hometown, in accordance with his wishes.

17 Language points 28. on account of: because of 28. on account of: because of e.g. They got married on account of the baby. e.g. They got married on account of the baby. We didn t have a good time because the picnic was held in the gym on account of the rain. We didn t have a good time because the picnic was held in the gym on account of the rain. 29. with a good grace: willingly, cheerfully without complaint 29. with a good grace: willingly, cheerfully without complaint e.g. He accept his defeat at the chess game with a good grace. e.g. He accept his defeat at the chess game with a good grace.

18 Language points something of an athlete rather an athlete, a fairly good athlete something of an athlete rather an athlete, a fairly good athlete She is something of a pianist. She is something of a pianist. The soldier found himself something of a hero. The soldier found himself something of a hero. presently soon, shortly, immediately, at the present time presently soon, shortly, immediately, at the present time We were not sure if Peter would come to the party. Presently he appeared. We were not sure if Peter would come to the party. Presently he appeared. Presently I heard her leave the house. Presently I heard her leave the house. She s presently working on her PhD. She s presently working on her PhD. Presently we have no vacancy in the office. Presently we have no vacancy in the office.

19 VI Discussion Divide the Ss into groups and ask them to discuss the following topics: Divide the Ss into groups and ask them to discuss the following topics: What is the main idea of this text? The first impressions of a person are always wrong, according to the author? Give your reasons. What is the main idea of this text? The first impressions of a person are always wrong, according to the author? Give your reasons.

20 VII Organization and development In this piece of persuasive writing, the writer uses narration (a story within a story) as his technique to convince the reader of his point of view first impressions of a person are often more wrong than right. In this piece of persuasive writing, the writer uses narration (a story within a story) as his technique to convince the reader of his point of view first impressions of a person are often more wrong than right. The following is a summary of how Maugham uses different methods to achieve his purpose: The following is a summary of how Maugham uses different methods to achieve his purpose: 1. The narrative employed in this piece of writing is not in the usual chronological order but flashback is used. 1. The narrative employed in this piece of writing is not in the usual chronological order but flashback is used. 2. The writer succeeds in choosing details that are related to his purpose and the effect he wants to create. 2. The writer succeeds in choosing details that are related to his purpose and the effect he wants to create. 3. Maugham keeps the narrative moving forward through dialogue. 3. Maugham keeps the narrative moving forward through dialogue.

21 Organization and development 4. Maugham uses a narrator who speaks in the first person to tell the story and to express what may well also be Maugham s own point of view. 4. Maugham uses a narrator who speaks in the first person to tell the story and to express what may well also be Maugham s own point of view. 5. The writer makes uses of what turns out to be an ironic title. 5. The writer makes uses of what turns out to be an ironic title. In short, the writer s use of narration is successful because he keeps his purpose and audience in mind and has a trick up his sleeve. The surprising memorable ending a not untypical characteristic of a good short story demonstrates the writer s original point admirably and significantly. In short, the writer s use of narration is successful because he keeps his purpose and audience in mind and has a trick up his sleeve. The surprising memorable ending a not untypical characteristic of a good short story demonstrates the writer s original point admirably and significantly.

22 VIII Homework Finish the exercise in the workbook. Finish the exercise in the workbook. Surf on line and find out some information about Maugham. Surf on line and find out some information about Maugham. Writing a composition,the title: An English Merchant at Kobe for you with the below cues for each para. Writing a composition,the title: An English Merchant at Kobe for you with the below cues for each para.

23 The End Thank You! Thank You!


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