Presentation on theme: "Ch 3-1 Early English Settlements. Sir Walter Raleigh asked Queen Elizabeth of England if he could lead a group of people to begin a colony in the USA."— Presentation transcript:
Ch 3-1 Early English Settlements
Sir Walter Raleigh asked Queen Elizabeth of England if he could lead a group of people to begin a colony in the USA. Queen Elizabeth gave Raleigh a charter ( a document that allowed colonists to live on land owned by their country.)
In 1585, Raleigh sent 100 men to settle Roanoke It failed due to bad winter which led to hunger and also to bad relations with the Native Americans. All but 15 men went back to England on a ship.
In 1587, Raleigh sent colonists a second time, 91 men, 17 women and 9 children The 15 men that had stayed behind the 1 st time had been killed by then. John White, a map maker led the group. Upon arrival White found only a skeleton to show where the former settlement had been.
White drew pictures of what he saw describing the village of the Native Americans as small and few…contain but ten or twelve houses.
Because of the 15 men that had been killed by Native Americans, John White decided that they should pay the Native Americans back. He ordered his men to attack the Powhatans since supposedly, they were the ones who had killed the 15 men. However, they instead attacked the Croatoans, Native Americans who had been their friends and helped them. After the battle, the Croatoans were enemies. This forced John White to have to go back to England for more food and supplies and also recruit more people.
It took John White three years to return and when he did he did not find any colonists on Roanoke Island. The only clue was CROATOAN carved on the gate post. They were never seen again!
Wealth Power Expanding their Empire.
A body of people living in a new territory but still having ties with their mother country What is a Colony?
A charter gave the right to organize settlements in areas * These merchants formed companies to finance expedition to America Began in 1606, sought by merchants, granted by Queen
Investors buy stocks (part ownerships of a company) in return for a share of its future profits
1 st to receive a charter In 1606 sent 144 settlers and 3 ships to build a new colony They wanted to make money
Are investors that are venturing (risking) their capital (money) to make profit (more money) ex: gold, fur, fish, lumber **but they should have been growing food!!!
In April of 1607, the ships entered the Chesapeake Bay and then sailed up a river flowing into the bay. The colonist named it James and their new settlement Jamestown to honor their King.
the James River the peninsula
Today, Jamestown is located on an island in the James River. This is an aerial view of part of Jamestown fort.
Why did the settlers choose the site at Jamestown? This is one of the very first maps of Virginia. Can you find the Chesapeake Bay?
The location could be easily defended from attack by sea. The English feared a sea attack by the Spanish.
Swampy land Mosquitoes that carried disease Lack of good farmland
CAUSE Not accustomed to hard labor Investors expected a quick profit They were searching for gold and silver EFFECT Disease Hunger Only 38 settlers remained alive
Sent to revitalize and govern Jamestown Forced the settlers to work if any would not work…neither should he eat. Got food from the local Natives- Powhatan Indians
It really wasnt him…..Indian Princess Pocahontas, befriended Smith and saved his life when the Powhatan Indians captured him. They were able to keep peace between Indians and colonists.
Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan, believed the English and American Indians (First Americans) could live in harmony. different portraits of Pocahontas Married John Rolfe
Learned to grow tobacco ( first cash crop) using seeds from the West Indies and introduced it to Jamestown
The Powhatan people and the English settlers at Jamestown established trading relationships and for a while had positive interactions. 1600s drawing of a Powhatan village
The Powhatans traded food, furs, and leather with the English in exchange for tools, pots, guns, guns, and other goods. Powhatan shelter and cooking fire at Jamestown
Seal of the Virginia Company the cash crop (crops raised to be sold for $$).
Nearly all of Jamestown's settlers were men. They worked for Virginia Company and lived under strict rules. As the colony grew they started to complain about taking orders.
The complaints of the workers led to the first representative legislative assembly House of Burgesses burger-old English term meaning free citizen It dealt with local matters Served as a place to protest against policies WhataBurger –build your Burger that represents you!!
Also, in 1619, twenty Africans arrived in Jamestown against their will. They were sold to Virginia planters to labor in the tobacco fields. In the beginning, they arrived as indentured servants (a person who exchanges 5 to 7 years of servitude for a passage to America).
The English also introduced the institution of slavery in Virginia. It lasted a long time because of the tobacco industry. slave a person who was bought and sold as property and forced to work
In 1620, the Virginia Company of London sent a ship with 90 young women to Jamestown. A man who wanted to marry one of these women, had to pay 120 pounds of tobacco to the ships captain for her trip to Jamestown.