International Disease Monitoring Defra monitors the occurrence of major animal disease outbreaks worldwide as an early warning to assess the risk these events may pose to the UKmonitors the occurrence of major animal disease outbreaks
Disease Prevention Work on legal and illegal imports; surveillance in the UK and elsewhere in the world; farm health planning; biosecurity; livestock movement controls and keeper vigilance, trying to decrease the risk of exotic notifiable diseases occurring and spreading in UK.
Imports and intra community trade Monitor animal diseases across the world (particularly those affecting trading partners and countries bordering the EU), that would have a significant impact if introduced into the UK and produce preliminary outbreak assessments or full qualitative risk assessments to assist decision-making by those responsible for biosecurity, surveillance, disease preparedness and enforcement.
National Reference Laboratories Are responsible for the provision and interpretation of diagnostic and surveillance testing as well as disease- specific expert knowledge in relation to the application of laboratory tests, epidemiology and control measures.
Suspicion of Disease Local response by AHVLA Office
Where can a notification of suspicion come from? Official Veterinarian (OV) General Public, Local Authority, Abattoirs etc Animal Health Tracing request Animal Health Office Report Case Consultation Case (Unless the OV has left the premises, then it will be managed as a Report case) Tracing request (Due to suspicion or confirmed disease elsewhere)
EXD40: Report Form – Veterinary Inquiry Note: An EXD40 Report Form - Veterinary Inquiry, is used to record the vital information following notification of suspicion of disease. Upon notification the Duty VO will open this Report Form, for a Report Case only, by completing Part One. The Field VO will complete Part Two to Part Nine (As required). Epidemiology VO/Team will complete Part Ten.
Basic Process Map Notifiable (Animal) Disease (Continued) Notification of Suspect Animal Disease Office Staff
Basic Process Map Notifiable (Animal) Disease (Continued) Notification of Suspect Animal Disease Update AHDO staff on task Office Staff
Basic Process Map Notifiable (Animal) Disease (Continued) Notification of Suspect Animal Disease Update AHDO staff on task Update Operational Partners Office Staff
How do we communicate Notifiable (Animal) Disease Messages Remember: We will aim to communicate with Operational Partners through a minimum of three methods
Notification of Suspicion of Disease to Operational Partners Form Notification Format: This form out lines in basic format the information required to be passed to Operational Partners following initial notification of Suspicion of Disease. Note: If this form is completed electronically or manually it will form part of the audit / file created for this investigation.
NDI 1: Notification Disease Investigation NDI 1: VENDU are responsible for completing and distributing the NDI 1 Form. This form contains the key information gathered by the AHDO and notes the action required by the Responding Office. This form will be updated IF Disease Can Not Be Ruled Out and Samples Taken. In addition VENDU will apply a Disease Investigation Reference Number and this will then be quoted on all forms: NDI/Year/Numerical Number (NDI/2009/001, 002 etc)
Basic Process Map Notifiable (Animal) Disease (Continued) Notification of Suspect Animal Disease Update AHDO staff on task Update Operational Partners Office Staff Field Veterinary Officer Dispatched
Basic Process Map Notifiable (Animal) Disease (Continued) Assesses Situation and Reports to VENDU Disease Can Not be Ruled Out Disease Ruled Out Disease Confirmed Notification of Suspect Animal Disease Update AHDO staff on task Update Operational Partners Office Staff Field Veterinary Officer Dispatched Note: VENDU: Veterinary Exotic Notifiable Disease Unit
Disease Ruled Out Disease Can Not be Ruled Out Disease Confirmed Return to Normal Duties
Disease Ruled Out Disease Can Not be Ruled Out Disease Confirmed Samples collected for analysis Return to Normal Duties
Planning: Sample Movement Plan Sample Movement Plan: Depending upon the disease suspected, samples will be transported by the fastest means possible. This may involve appointing a Sample Movements Officer to carry the samples to the designated laboratory. Consider: 1. An officer at the gate to collect/move samples 2. Other transport means Air (Escort Officer) or Courier service.
Planning: Surveillance 3 Km Protection Zone (PZ) 10 Km Surveillance Zone (SZ) Planning for LDCC Surveillance: The LDCC Surveillance team plan in detail action required for the 3 Km PZ and the 10 Km SZ actions for Contiguous Premises, Stock and No Stock visits.
Note: An EXD 1 Restriction Notice is served upon a Premises where Disease is Suspected. This form can be served by a Veterinary Officer or a auhtorised Inspector, however a Veterinary Officer MUST conduct the investigation into disease. EXD1: Restriction Notice – Suspicion of Disease
IP Disease On Disease Off EXD40 DC High Risk of Spread High Risk of Source SourceSpread Other Tracings Planning: Tracing & Dangerous Contacts (DCs)
Disease Ruled Out Disease Can Not be Ruled Out Disease Confirmed Samples collected for analysis Return to Normal Duties Disease Ruled Out Disease Confirmed Return to Normal Duties Establish Local Disease Control Centre (LDCC) Note: Disease will not be Confirmed on Farm in Clean Country, samples will be sent for analysis first.
Amber Teleconference Purpose is to inform all concerned of the situation, assess the risk and agree on next steps. Chaired by the CVO (UK) and follows a standard agenda. CVO may agree to confirm disease (raising the alert status to Red) or specify what further evidence, such as test results, would be needed. Future actions and communications based on the emerging situation.
Restrictions Infected/Suspected Premises and Affected Area
Restrictions A report of suspicion of exotic notifiable disease triggers an official investigation by AHVLA that will place temporary statutory restrictions on that premises The restrictions may apply to the whole premises or just to individual animals, usually include a ban on the movement of susceptible animals on and off the suspect premises and may include restrictions on other things liable to transmit disease During the suspicion phase of certain diseases (e.g. Avian Influenza, Foot and Mouth Disease, African Swine Fever) a Temporary Control Zone (TCZ) may also be declared around the premises under suspicion
Confirmation of Disease Prevent Spread of Disease Taking action on the Infected Premises (IP) and other affected premises where disease is most likely to exist Imposing wider area based controls as required by legislation including animal movement controls (in the case of FMD in particular, GB administrations may impose national movement restrictions on susceptible animals); Restricting activities that might increase the risk of spread
Confirmation of Disease Prevent Spread of Disease Placing controls on animal products; Considering export bans; Investigating the origin of the disease and determining whether there has been further spread of disease from that source Other surveillance to investigate possible further spread of disease.
Actions on IP The rules concerning the premises will be set out in the notice served on the animal keeper and also any licence will specify conditions permitting movements onto and off the premises or restricted place. As an additional precaution, rights of way (e.g. footpaths, bridleways, etc.) that cross the premises would normally be closed. During the suspicion phase of certain diseases, a Temporary Control Zone (TCZ) may be declared around the premises under suspicion.
Action on Surrounding Area Upon confirmation of most exotic notifiable diseases a Protection Zone (PZ), surrounded by a larger Surveillance Zone (SZ) would be imposed around the Infected Premises (IP) by Statutory Order. To reflect the increased risk of transmission of disease, controls within the PZ would be more stringent that those within the SZ. In the case of Rabies, an infected area may be imposed by Statutory Order that could be sub-divided into further zones, each with their own set of controls.
Actions on Surrounding Area For those diseases where confirmation would not result in a PZ and SZ being imposed, legislation and the relevant disease control strategy, provides for other types of controlled zones to be imposed. Their main objective is to reduce the risk of disease spreading beyond the known affected area.
TCZ (Temporary Control Zone) Imposes specific measures and be of a size considered necessary to reduce the risk of or prevent the spread of disease. For FMD, the TCZ would typically have a minimum radius of 10km. A further movement control zone may also be established depending on the disease, restricting the movement of animals in a wider area. The TCZ would be removed if the suspect case tests negative or is converted to Protection and Surveillance Zones by Statutory Order if tests are positive and disease is confirmed.
PZ and SZ Protection Zone (PZ) Radius of not less than 3 kilometres from the IP. It may be necessary for the PZ to be a different shape, for example, if disease can be spread by vectors or likely to be windborne, to take into account the size and shape of the wind plume under which animals may have been exposed to disease. Provided there were no further cases and all the required surveillance has been carried out within the PZ, normally 21 days after completion of preliminary disinfection of the IP, the PZ can be merged with the SZ, with some relaxation in the controls in the original PZ area so they are equivalent to those of the SZ.
PZ and SZ Surveillance Zone (SZ) Radius of not less than 10 kilometres from the IP. Provided there are no further cases and all the required surveillance has been carried out, the surveillance zone will be lifted, usually not less than 30 days after the completion of preliminary cleansing and disinfection on the last infected premises within the PZ.
Controls and Restrictions PZ and SZ The controls vary depending on which disease is involved and are set out in the relevant Statutory Order declaring the zones. Controls are primarily focused on the movement of animals Legislation includes controls on vehicles, fomites, meat, animal products and on the carcases of animals. Animal keepers within the control zones may be required to carry out additional biosecurity measures and report any suspicion of disease.
Controls and Restrictions PZ and SZ AHVLA will carry out surveillance (clinical inspection, examination and possibly sampling for laboratory testing) in the areas to demonstrate that disease has not spread. In extensive outbreaks or incidents, where there may be a large number of PZ and SZ areas declared, the areas may overlap to form a very large PZ and SZ which may increase the time required to carry out the required surveillance to demonstrate freedom.
Lifting of Restrictions EXD2(FMD) restrictions remain in place until either: The premises have been restocked and the animals show no signs of disease on clinical inspections and from latest on samples. Or A longer period of time has elapsed after which restrictions are revoked and you may stock without licensing, inspections and sampling.
Lifting of Restrictions EXD8(FMD) restrictions remain in place until either: A minimum period of time has elapsed since they were exposed to possible infection Or If the animals present have not shown any signs of disease and any samples taken are all negative.
Lifting of Restrictions Premises in Protection and Surveillance Zones The restrictions on these premises cannot be lifted until there is confidence that no disease is present, either on the premises or elsewhere within the Zones. Regular inspections will take place from the time the disease is suspected.
Lifting of Restrictions The PZ cannot be merged with the surveillance zone until at least 15 days after preliminary cleansing and disinfection of the IP and then only if no disease is suspected or confirmed and the results of any samples taken are all negative. The SZ must remain in force for at least another 15 days although again it will remain in force if further disease is suspected or confirmed in the area.
Tracings As a result of the veterinary investigation, other premises may be identified where the disease may have come from (source) or gone to (spread). These premises could be many miles from the IP. They will be placed under EXD 8(FMD). If the level of exposure is not deemed high enough to warrant culling, the animals will remain under restriction using Form EXD8(FMD). They will be regularly inspected for signs of disease.
Tracings If, following a Veterinary Inspection, it is considered very likely that animals have been exposed to disease and will probably develop clinical signs, they will be valued and culled as quickly as possible. These premises are known as Dangerous Contacts (DC) and an EXD2(FMD) Restriction Notice will be served on them.
Tracings C & D usually involves cleaning areas and equipment with approved disinfectants but can also include the premises (or parts of the premises) remaining under restrictions for a long period, possibly up to 12 months to allow natural virus decay. This may be an option if you do not wish to undertake usual C & D.
FMD EU Legislation Council Directive 2003/85/ECCouncil Directive 2003/85/EC lays down rules for the control of Foot and Mouth Disease including Vaccination and includes: Compulsory notification of suspicion of disease Eradication measures to be imposed on infected premises, including movement restrictions and slaughter Imposition of a protection zone of at least 3km, and a surveillance zone of at least 10km around each infected premises
FMD EU Legislation Council Directive 2003/85/ECCouncil Directive 2003/85/EC lays down rules for the control of Foot and Mouth Disease including Vaccination and includes: Imposition of controls on the movement of susceptible stock within both zones Permitting emergency vaccination. The provisions of the directives have been implemented in domestic legislation.
FMD Domestic Legislation Animal Health Act (AHA)1981 1.Orders in England and Wales are made under The Animal Health Act 1981 (as amended). 2. The powers of the 2002 amendment to the Animal Health Act 1981 apply to Foot and Mouth Disease in England and Wales.2002 amendment 3. The 2005 amendments apply and require slaughter of susceptible stock on an Infected Premises though there are some exceptions.2005 amendments
FMD Domestic Legislation Foot and Mouth Disease Orders 2006 (FMD Orders) 1. There are separate Foot and Mouth Orders in each administration: The Foot-and-Mouth Disease (England) Order 2006 The Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Scotland) Order 2006 The Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Wales) Order 2006
FMD Domestic Legislation Control of Vaccination Regulations 2006 1. In addition to the FMD Orders each administration provides for Vaccination: England - The Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Control of Vaccination) (England) Regulations 2006The Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Control of Vaccination) (England) Regulations 2006 Scotland - The Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Slaughter and Vaccination) (Scotland) Regulations 2006The Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Slaughter and Vaccination) (Scotland) Regulations 2006 Wales - The Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Control of Vaccination) (Wales) Regulations 2006The Foot-and-Mouth Disease (Control of Vaccination) (Wales) Regulations 2006
FMD Domestic Legislation The Export and Movement Restrictions (Foot- and-Mouth Disease) Regulations 2007 1. These regulations implement the SCOFCAH decision and came into effect on 19 November.regulations