Presentation on theme: "The Center for Academic Excellence presents . . ."— Presentation transcript:
1The Center for Academic Excellence presents . . . The APA EssayBasic Format
2Although this PowerPoint presentation does not claim to be a comprehensive introduction to APA Style, it will provide beginning students with a general introduction to the basic requirements and structure of a formal APA research paper.Please note that individual professors may request slight variations on the information presented here. They may, for example, prefer that students include the professor’s name and the course information on the title page. Your professor’s instructions override any other requirements.
3Table of Contents General APA Guidelines Parts of an APA Essay Sample APA PagesSetting up the Title PageThe AbstractLevels of SeriationSome Useful Links
4General APA Guidelines The APA essay is typed on letter-sized paper (8.5" x 11") , is double-spaced, and has 1" margins all the way around. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font.APA style requires that authors use the past or the present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research—for example, “Vogel (2009) found . . .” or “Archbold (2012) has found . . .”Return to Contents
5The basic APA essay consists of nine distinct parts: The cover sheet The abstract (about 250 words)The introduction (topic, comparison of the literature, hypothesis)Primary research method (including the rationale)Primary research results (completely objective) BodyDiscussion of the research (an interpretation)Conclusion (summary, conclusions, suggestions)ReferencesTablesReturn to Contents
6Note that the title of the abstract is not bolded. First-level subtitles are bolded and centered. All parts of the essay are subitled except the intro. and the conclusion.THE EFFICACY OF UNIFORMSMethodsThe title of the essay is centered at the top of page three. It is not bolded.THE EFFICACY OF UNIFORMSThe Efficacy of Uniforms: A Five-Year StudyThe title appears on the far left on every page—always on the same line as the page number.Note that the title of the abstract is not bolded.THE EFFICACY OF UNIFORMSAbstractThe running head is followed by the title of your essay. The words “Running head” appear only on the cover sheet and are on the same line as the page number.Number every page, even the cover sheet.Running head: THE EFFICACY OF UNIFORMSThe Efficacy of Uniforms: A Five-Year StudyJane DoeIvy Tech Community College, Fort WayneCentered between the running head and the center of the page are (a) the essay title, (b) your name, and (c) the name of your college or university.
7Illustrative charts or tables are included after the References page. THE EFFICACY OF UNIFORMSTablesThe word “References” is centered on the bibligoraphic page. It is not bolded.THE EFFICACY OF UNIFORMSReferencesBiancarosa, G. (2005). After third grade. Educational Leadership,63(2),Borman, K., Dole, G., Kral, C., Salinger, T., & Torgensen, J. Improvingadolescent literacy: Effective classroom and interventionpractices: A practice guide (NCEE ). Washington, DC:National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance,Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.Return to Contents
8Setting up the Title Page Perhaps the most challenging part of formatting the APA paper is including the words “Running head” on the title page.Open Word, and look at the Ribbon across the top of the page.Click on the INSERT tab.
9Header & Footer Section After clicking on the Insert tab, locate the Header and Footer section, and click Page Number.When the drop box appears, click on Top of Page and choose Plain Number 3.Header & Footer SectionPage NumberTop of PagePlain Number 3
10After the page number is inserted you will notice something interesting about the ribbon—a shaded green Design tab will appear (see below).Check the box labeled Different First Page.
11When you check the box, the page number will disappear When you check the box, the page number will disappear. Left justify your text, then type the words “Running head” and a shortened version of your title in the header, followed by the number 1. Space the number all the way over to the right.Now tap the ESC key (or double click below the pale blue dotted line) to escape from the header. Space down to the second page.Note that the Label “Running head” is in upper- and lowercase.Note, too, that the title of the running head is in capital letters.
12The header of the second page will contain only the number 2 The header of the second page will contain only the number 2. Place the cursor beside the number, and type the shortened version of your title in capital letters. Keep tapping the space key until the title meets the left margin. Your paper is basically set up and you can return to making the title page.
13Running head: The Efficacy of Uniforms 1 The Efficacy of Uniforms: A Five-Year StudyJane DoeIvy Tech Community College, Fort WayneThe full title of the essay is typed in in upper and lowercase letters and is centered in the upper half of the page. APA format suggeststhat titles be limited to a maximum of twelve words. The title may be as many as two lines long, though one is preferable. All text on the title page, and throughout the paper, is double-spaced only.The author's name appears below the title and includes first name, middle initial(s), and last name. Neither degrees (Ph.D.) nor titles (Dr.) may be included.Beneath the author’s name is the name of the college or university where the paper was prepared.Return to Contents
14Begin a new page. Your abstract page obviously includes the page header. On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks).Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.)Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph double-spaced. Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words.You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: (italicized), and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.The Efficacy of UniformsAbstractMany private schools claim that uniforms promote disciplineand create a climate for success. This study examined themerit of such a claim. A five-year study was conducted attwo local high schools, both of which were similar in termsof economic background and academic achievement. Thestudy clearly suggests that students who wear uniformstend to better than students who do not, for a variety of reasons: not only do uniforms appear to diminish theteenage obsession for fashion, they also seem to promotea definite sense of belonging and of group rather thanindividual identity. Critics of the study point out that it is impossible to account for all of the variables which affect student performance ; further research is necessary beforeany definitive conclusion can be made.Return to Contents
15Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Levels of SeriationAlthough the titles of the main sections of your essay are not bolded, the headings within the body of your essay are quite fussy:APA HeadingsLevelFormat1Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading2Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading3Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a period. Begin body text after the period.4Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with a period. Begin body text after the period.5Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period. Begin body text after the period.Return to Contents
16Some Useful LinksThis PowerPoint presentation is a very simple introduction to APA format. For more detailed information, feel free to consult the following resources:See, too, the other PowerPoint Presentations in the CAE’s APA Series.The Purdue OWL:Noodletools:American Psychological Association:Return to Contents
17PowerPoint presentation by Mark A. Spalding, BA, MEd, MA (2012). The EndPowerPoint presentation by Mark A. Spalding, BA, MEd, MA (2012).All information is derived from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or from the Purdue OWL.