Presentation on theme: "כתבי יד עתיקים בספרייה הבריטית"— Presentation transcript:
1כתבי יד עתיקים בספרייה הבריטית כתבי-יד עד סוף המאה השלוש-עשרהמצגת ראשונהמצגותקלריטה ואפריםThe British Library's Manuscripts I
2מצגת זו אינה כוללת את כתבי היד היהודיים שבספרייה הבריטית. להם הקדשנו שתי מצגות נפרדות.
3באולם התצוגה של אוצרות הספרייה הלאומית הבריטית: The Sir John Ritblat Gallery in the Library's St Pancras building hosts a permanent display of the British Library’s greatest treasures. Over 200 beautiful and fascinating items: sacred texts from many faiths, maps and views, early printing, literary, historical, scientific and musical works from over the centuries and around the world.באולם התצוגה של אוצרות הספרייה הלאומית הבריטית:כתבי יד עתיקים מהעולם בשפות שונות, כתבי יד של מלחיניםוהספרים הראשונים שהודפסו, ביניהם תנ"ך גוטנברג על קלף ועל נייר...
4The term ‘manuscript’ comes from the Latin for ‘handwritten’: before the invention of printing all books had to be written out by hand. This was a time-consuming and labour-intensive process, and could take months or years. Although paper was available in southern Europe from the twelfth century, its use did not become widespread until the late Middle Ages - there was no paper mill in England until the fifteenth century. Before this the usual support for writing was parchment (also known as vellum), made from stretched, treated animal skins. A large manuscript might require one whole cow- or sheep-skin to make a folded sheet of two to four pages, and a thick book could require the hides of entire herds. Medieval books were therefore expensive items.
5Gandharan ScrollsThese scroll fragments, from an extraordinary collection of birch bark writings from ancient Gandhara in present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan, may represent the oldest surviving Buddhist texts (and also the oldest South Asian manuscripts) ever discovered.
63rd-century Gospel of Thomas Unearthed in the rubbish tips of the ancient Egyptian city of Oxyrhynchus, south of Cairo, this fragment from a papyrus roll is over 1600 years old. It contains a Gospel not found in the standard Bible: that of Thomas, whose account of the life of Jesus is as interesting for what it leaves out as for what it includes.
7both to some of the Library’s treasures Some manuscripts were made even more precious by ‘illumination’ This term comes from the Latin word for ‘lit up’ or ‘enlightened’ and refers to the use of bright colours and gold to embellish initial letters or to portray entire scenes. Sometimes the initials were purely decorative, but often they work with the text to mark important passages, or to enhance or comment on the meaning of the text.The British Library has one of the finest collections of illuminated manuscripts in the world, rivalled by very few other institutions This tour will give you a quick introductionboth to some of the Library’s treasuresand to the history of manuscript illumination in the West.
8Codex SinaiticusDespite its rather austere appearance, the Codex Sinaiticus is a treasure beyond price. Produced in the middle of the fourth century, the Codex is one of the two earliest Christian Bibles. (The other is the Codex Vaticanus in Rome.) Within its beautifully handwritten Greek text are the earliest surviving copy of the complete New Testament and the earliest and best copies of some of the Jewish scriptures, in the form that they were adopted by the Christian Church As one of the earliest luxury codices to survive in large part, the Codex forms one of the most important landmarks in the history of the book
9מעבר שהפך דומיננטי במאה הרביעית, חמישית . קודקס (Codex ) פירושו ספר. משמעותה המקורית של המילה : "גזע עץ " שכן לוחות עץ שימשו הבסיס עליו כתבו שעה שלא הכירו את שולחן הכתיבה.מִצְחָף או קודקס בעברית הוא כינוי שניתן לספרים שנכתבו שלא בתבנית מגילה אלא בתבנית דפים הבאים זה על זה, בדומה לספר הנהוג בימינו. הכינוי נכון לכל סוגי המצעים לספרים: עור וגוויל, קלף ופפירוס.עד המאה השלישית לספירה כתבו ספרים בתבנית של מגילה נגללת דוגמת ספרי התורה הנוהגת עד היום . מכאן הכינוי מגילות לספרים הנפרדים. מכאן גם הכינוי "בית עקד הספרים" שכן ספרי המגילות היו נעקדים (נקשרים) ברצועות עור כדי שהמגילות לא תפתחנה מעצמן.החל מהמאה השנייה לספירה החל מעבר איטי ממגילה לקודקס בספרות היוונית והרומאית,מעבר שהפך דומיננטי במאה הרביעית, חמישית .לאחר המאה השלישית הופיעו המצחפים הראשונים, בתבנית כתבי היד העשויים דפים כספר. המילה מצחף מוכרת מתקופת הגאונים שורשה מן הערבית )مصحف), ואפשר שמקורה בצפחה רוצה לומר שכבה דקה. בתחילה נכתבו המצחפים על גבי פפירוסים, ועם הזמן נכתבו גם על קלף ועור. גם כתבי היד החשובים של התנ"ך, כגון כתר ארם צובא, בנויים כמצחפים.
10Syriac BibleSigned and dated by its scribe, a bishop called John, this important early copy of the first five books of the Bible is in Syriac, a dialect of Eastern Aramaic (Aramaic being the language spoken by Jesus). It comes from an area now in Syria, Iraq and Turkey.
11The Golden Canon Tables, Constantinople ? 6th or 7th century. Canon tables, in GreekThe Golden Canon Tables,Constantinople ? 6th or 7th century.
12Lindisfarne GospelsThis legacy of an artist monk living in North umbria in the early eighth century is a precious testament to the tenacity of Christian belief during one of the most turbulent periods of British history. Costly in time and materials, superb in design, the manuscript is among our greatest artistic and religious treasures. It was made and used at Lindisfarne Priory on Holy Island, a major religious community that housed the shrine of St Cuthbert, who died in 687.
14The Gospel Book, or Book of the Gospels (Greek: Εὐαγγέλιον, Evangélion) is a codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament. It contains the full text in normal sequence, thus differing from an Evangeliary, which only has those portions of the Gospels used in the Mass and other services.
15Eighth-century Qur'anThe Ma'il Qur'an is one of the very earliest Qur'ans in the world, dating back to the eighth century. Not only that, but it also probably hails from the Hijaz region of Arabia – a region which contains the holy places of Mecca and Medina, homes of the Prophet Muhammad.
16Kufic Qur'anEarly Qur'ans are important as evidence of the development of the written recording of Islam's holy book. This copy of the Qur'an in Arabic, probably from the ninth century, is copied on to vellum and uses an early script called kufic.
17Adam and Eve The creation of Adam and Eve Adam and Eve The creation of Adam and Eve. God gives Eve to Adam, and warns of the Tree of Knowledge. Adam and Eve eat from the Tree of Knowledge; God confronts them. The Expulsion from the idealized landscape of Eden to labour on thorny soil; Adam digs, while Eve suckles childImage taken from Moutier-Grandval Bible.Originally published/produced in Tours [St Martin]; circa
18Diamond SutraHidden for centuries in a sealed-up cave in north-west China, this copy of the ‘Diamond Sutra’ is the world’s earliest complete survival of a dated printed book. It was made in 868. Seven strips of yellow-stained paper were printed from carved wooden blocks and pasted together to form a scroll over 5m long. Though written in Chinese, the text is one of the most important sacred works of the Buddhist faith, which was founded in India.
19Ashem VohuThis ninth- or 10th-century Sogdian manuscript from Dunhuang, China, contains a version of one of the holiest Zoroastrian prayers: the Ashem Vohu, composed originally in the Avestan (old Iranian) language.
20New Testament from 10th-century Constantinople In this impressive New Testament - perhaps the most beautiful example in Greek in the British Library - a picture shows the Evangelist St Luke at his desk, his writing implements ready to hand. It serves as the frontispiece to the Gospel of St Luke. The manuscript was made at a high point in the history of the capital of Eastern Christendom, and demonstrates the unbroken tradition of the use of Greek as the literate language of the Eastern Mediterranean.
21Aratus of Soli: “Phaenomena” The Constellation Cetus, the sea monster from which Perseus rescued Andromeda An astronomical work written at Fleury in France but probably illuminated by an English artist, showing links between England and the Continent in the tenth century.
22Benedictional of St Aethelwold This manuscript, which was made for the personal use of Aethelwold, bishop of Winchester from 963 to 984, one of the leaders of the late 10th-century monastic revival in England, is an outstanding masterpiece of Anglo-Saxon book painting.Benedictional of St Aethelwold:Entry into Jerusalem. Winchester, c
23Image taken from Old English Illustrated Hexateuch. Building of the Tower of Babel Genesis 11, 5. God descends, by means of a ladder, to witness the building of the Tower of BabelImage taken from Old English Illustrated Hexateuch.Originally published/produced in England [Canterbury]; second quarter of 11th century.
24Old English Hexateuch Adam naming the animals As the earliest copy in English of part of the Old Testament and with over 400 illustrations, this manuscript is both remarkable and unique. The collaboration of a team of translators, scribes and an artist over many years, it is a vivid example of the demand for sacred texts in 11th-century England that were accessible to everyday people, who wanted a Bible presented in a way they could understand.Adam naming the animals
25The Hexateuch ("six scrolls") is the first six books of the Hebrew Bible (the Torah or Pentateuch and the book of Joshua). Some scholars propose that Joshua represents part of the northern Yahwist source (c 950 BC), detached from JE document by the Deuteronomist (c ) and incorporated into the Deuteronomic history, with the books of Judges, Kings, and Samuel.Reasons for this unity, in addition to the presumed presence of the other documentary traditions, are taken from comparisons of the thematic concerns that underlie the narrative surface of the texts. For instance, the Book of Joshua stresses the continuity of leadership from Moses to Joshua. Furthermore the theme of Joshua, the fulfillment of God's promise to lead the Israelites to the Promised Land, complements the thematic material of the Pentateuch, which had ended with the Israelites on the border of the Promised Land ready to enter.The theory that Joshua completes the Torah in a 'Hexateuch' is advanced by critical scholars in the new field of "history of traditions", but the majority of traditional scholars follow the older rabbinic tradition, as it was expressed by the compilers of the Jewish Encyclopedia a century ago, that the Pentateuch is a complete work in itself.
26Old English Illustrated Hexateuch. Joseph and his brothers Genesis 43, Above; Joseph's brothers, with their gift, prostrate themselves; at the sight of Benjamin, Joseph has to retire to his chamber to weep. Below; on Joseph's return, there is segregated feasting.Old English Illustrated Hexateuch.
27Old English Illustrated Hexateuch. Meeting of Jacob and Esau Genesis 33, 1-4. Meeting of Jacob and Esau; Esau's retinue of armed menOld English Illustrated Hexateuch.
28Image taken from Old English Illustrated Hexateuch. Battle of Sodom and Gomorrah Genesis 14, Text, with upper part of illustration. The battle against Sodom and GomorrahImage taken from Old English Illustrated Hexateuch.
2911th century Qur'anThis elegant, detailed Qur'an is one of the earliest dated examples of naskhi script, the Arabic calligraphic hand which became one of the most popular styles for such manuscripts thanks to its legibility.
30Theodore PsalterThis profusely illustrated Psalms from 1066 is possibly the most significant surviving manuscript illuminated in Constantinople. It was made at a time when the anti-image movement of the iconoclasts had relatively recently been beaten down, and representational art could again flourish. The name comes from the monk who illustrated the manuscript.
31PsalterA psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms and which often contains other devotional material. Various schemes for the arrangement of the Psalms are described in Latin Psalters.In the early Middle Ages psalters were amongst the most popular types of illuminated manuscripts, rivaled only by the Gospel Books, from which they gradually took over as the type of manuscript chosen for lavish illumination.Medieval psalters often included a calendar, a litany of saints, canticles from the Old and New Testaments, as well as other devotional texts. Many psalters were lavishly illuminated with full-page miniatures as well as decorated initials.
32Sedulius Scotus, Expositio super primam edicionem Donati grammatici Germany; 2nd half of the 12th centuryFull-page miniature of Donatus writing his grammar, his ink-pot held by a monk labelled 'Heinre'(?), with two short poems in hexameters in the upper left and upper right corners: the first poem compares the breaking open of fruits, nuts, wine-jars and bees' cells, which in each case reveals the more valuable contents inside, to the similar discovery of knowledge, once the real meaning is found 'beneath' the literal meaning; the second poem is a simple tribute to the scribe of the manuscript, the painter of Donatus' portrait and the author of the manuscript; at the end of Sedulius Scotus's Expositio super primam edicionem Donati grammatici.
33Prudentius: “Psychomachia” England’ St Albans’ c.1120Superbia (pride) falls into a pit and is then beheaded by Humilitas (Humility)
34Silos ApocalypseThis spectacular manuscript of Beatus of Liébana's commentary on the Apocalypse survives in near perfect condition from the first decade of the 12th century. It was copied and illuminated in the Spanish monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos, near Burgos, at a time when the monastery's scriptorium was producing its finest work. Painted in brilliant colours and embellished with gold and silver leaf, its 106 striking miniatures illustrate the most extraordinary scenes in the Christian Bible - a triumph of artistic vision.
35אפוקליפסה (Apocalypse, מילה שמקורה בשפה היוונית) משמעותה "חזון" הגדרת הז'אנר לקוחה משמו של הספר האחרון בברית החדשה, חזון יוחנן, המתייחס לאחרית הימים ולהופעתו של ישו מחדש. כיום המושג מייצג את כל התפיסות הנוגעות לאחרית הימים ולגאולה כזו או אחרת מהמציאות המוכרת לנו.זהו ספר ידוע ביותר בתחום, והשפעתו עצומה. בספר זה מופיעים ביטויים ומושגים רבים כגון: "ארבעת פרשי האפוקליפסה", "ירושלים של מעלה" ורבים נוספים. הספר היה בסיס לאלפי יצירות אמנות בכל התחומים והשפיע אף על מהלכים בהיסטוריה כגון מסעות הצלב.עם זאת, התפיסה האפוקליפטית התחילה אף לפני כתיבת הספר וסביר להניח שיוחנן כותב הבשורה (שלא לגמרי ברור מיהו), מחברו של חזון יוחנן, כבר הכיר את חזון אחרית הימים כפי שהוא מופיע בספר דניאל.
36Harley Trilingual Psalter Palermo, Italy, between 1130 and 1154 Harley Trilingual Psalter Palermo, Italy, between 1130 and Psalm 81
37David and lion; David and Samuel Above; David as a shepherd rescues a lamb from the lion. Left, David stands with a crook, with two goats. Right; David rescues a lamb from the lion's mouth. Below; Annointing of David by Samuel. Samuel holds the horn of oil which he pours over David's head. Jesse stands in the middle, with David's six brothers on rightWinchester Psalter [Psalter of Henry of Blois; Psalter of St Swithun].betweenספר התהילים של ווינצ`סטר -דוד והאריה, דוד ושמואל למעלה : דוד הרועה מופיע פעמיים , כשהוא ניצב ומטהו בידו ורועה צאן אביו וכשהוא מציל שה משיני האריה. למטה: שמואל הנביא מושח את דוד למלך בעוד אביו ואחיו מביטים בפליאה.
38Hrabanus Maurus: “De Laudibus Sancte Crucis” Rhineland, Arnstein, 1170s.The Emperor Louis the Pions
39King David pursued by his sons La Charite Psalter – France, La Charite-Sur-Loire, end of the 12th centuryKing David pursued by his sons
40Bestiary – The goat and the bull. Northern England, c
41A bestiary, or Bestiarum vocabulum is a compendium of beasts A bestiary, or Bestiarum vocabulum is a compendium of beasts. Bestiaries were made popular in the Middle Ages in illustrated volumes that described various animals, birds and even rocks. The natural history and illustration of each beast was usually accompanied by a moral lesson. This reflected the belief that the world itself was the Word of God, and that every living thing had its own special meaning. The bestiary, then, is also a reference to the symbolic language of animals in Western Christian art and literature.Bestiaries were particularly popular in England and France around the 12th century and were mainly compilations of earlier texts.
42Entry in Jerusalem Entry into Jerusalem. Palm Sunday Entry in Jerusalem Entry into Jerusalem. Palm Sunday. Christ seated on a donkey enters Jerusalem followed by a joyous crowd; The elders of the city waiting at the gates of the city. This manuscript contains passages from the Gospels in liturgical sequence that are used as readings in church services. Tempera on paper.Image taken from Syriac Lectionary.Originally published/produced in Mosul (Iraq),Language: Syriac
43Giraldus Cambrensis “Topographica Hibernia” SouthernEngland,c.1220 The legend of the wolf that talked with the priest of Ulster
44Title Missal, including a calendar, a Gradual for summer, a Lectionary for the days after Easter and Pentecost Origin Austria or Germany Script Protogothic
45Leaf from an Arabic translation of the Materia Medica of Dioscorides 1224
46The de Brailes Hours is the earliest surviving English Book of Hours, written in Oxford in the thirteenth century and illuminated by William de Brailes.
47Awag Vank' GospelsInventively decorated with peacocks, this set of tables - a supplement to the Four Gospels - helped Bible readers in 13th-century Armenia. It enabled them to find parallel passages in different Gospels, and so compare and contrast the various accounts.
48Matthew Paris: “Historia Anglorum” England’ St Albans,King Henry III sailing to BrittanyDetached Leaf from a Psalter Germany’ mid 13th century.Scenes from the story of Samson
49World map Circular world map, with Jerusalem in the centre. Image taken fromMiscellaneous Writings.England [St Alban's Abbey and Wymondham]; between 1247 and Cotton Julius D. VII, f.46 Language: Latin
50Lyre Psalter Normandy, Lyre, second half of the 13th century David killing the bear and the lion that threatened his flocks
51Diagram of the earth, sun, and moon. Johannes de Sacro Bosco , Tractatus de sphaera ; Hippocras, De Contemptu Mundi; Astronomical treatises, etc.England; 3rd quarter of the 13th centuryMiniature of the earth in a circle, with personifications of the four cardinal points. Diagram of the earth, sun, and moon.
52Title Bible (Proverbs-Revelation) Origin France, Central (Paris) Date last quarter of the 13th century Language French Script Gothic
53Germany, diocese de Bamberg, late 13th century. PsalterGermany, diocese de Bamberg, late 13th century.Jacob’s ladder: Jacob lying dreaming as angels ascend and descend the ladder.
54A thirteenth-century English ‘bestiary’, containing illustrated information about various animals with explanations of their moral significance.
55“Histoire Universelle” Battle between Pyrrhus and Penthesilea, Queen of the Amazons Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, Acre’ c French
57מצגות קשורות לנושא:הספרייה הבריטית - מצגת ראשונהכתבי יד יהודיים בספרייה הבריטית – מצגת ראשונהכתבי יד יהודיים בספרייה הבריטית - מצגת שנייהכתבי יד כלליים בספרייה הבריטית – מצגת שנייהכתבי יד כלליים בספרייה הבריטית – מצגת שלישיתמקורות:"The Illuminated page – Ten centuries of manuscript painting” Janet Backhouse.
58הנכם מוזמנים להיכנס לאתר שלנו: קלריטה ואפריםהנכם מוזמנים להיכנס לאתר שלנו:נשמח לתגובות