Presentation on theme: "Evolution of Writing and Printing. Where we left off… Petroglyph: Images created by removing part of a rock surfaces by pecking and carving Pictograph:"— Presentation transcript:
Evolution of Writing and Printing
Where we left off… Petroglyph: Images created by removing part of a rock surfaces by pecking and carving Pictograph: An image drawn or painted on a rock face
…all of which evolved into… Simplified petroglyphs that represented numbers and countable objects.
A New Definition: Hieroglyphics: A simple form of alphabet in which each character represents an object or concept in everyday life. Note the recurrent use of STONE.
In the 1000 B.C. era, Egyptian Hieroglyphs evolved into the first alphabet. Scribed on Papyrus Scrolls using primitive inks.
Papyrus Papyrus: An early form of paper, usually used in rolls, made from the pulp of the papyrus plant.
Early papyrus scrolls were inscribed with primitive letters to record stories of a culture or census data.
Papyrus as a story-telling medium “The Heracles Papyrus”- 3 rd Century A.D.
The Library of Alexandria Built by Ptolemy the 2nd in 300 B.C. Said to contain more than 700,000 papyrus scrolls, encompassing all facets of human knowledge. Library destroyed in military conquests sometime between 48 B.C. and 642 A.D.
What is the Problem with Scribing and Carving?
The Development of Movable Type
Movable Type Invented by the Chinese around 1100 B.C.
Used originally as “chops”, signature printings of an artist’s name.
By 500 B.C….
One of the first complete intact works printed using movable type, “The Diamond Sutra” Korea A.D. 868
Evolution of Human Recorded Thought in Europe through the Dark Ages: 476 to 1000 A.D.
Preservation of Knowledge during the Dark Ages Most knowledge preserved in the West was done in Churches.
Vellum A type of parchment made from cured animal skins, known for its flexibility and durability, used for making the pages of books.
The Illuminated Manuscript Developed by the Celts,starting in roughly 400 A.D. Characterized by complex geometric designs and interwoven letters and graphics, designed to tell a story.
Illuminated Manuscript Samples “The Book of Kells”, A.D. 794
Illuminated Manuscript Samples “The Book of Durrow”, A.D. 680
Illuminated Manuscript Samples “Comments on the Psalms” 1200 A.D.
Europe, circa 1424 A.D.
The Birth of the Renaissance At around A.D., there is a sudden drastic increase in the search for knowledge. Universities open and people begin to want to learn.
The Great Cambridge Library In A.D. 1424, the entire collection of the University Library of Cambridge holds 122 manuscript books. (compare this to the Library of Alexandria…)
Why so few books? A simple 200 page manuscript took 5-6 months to scribe. The 25 pages of sheepskin used to create a book were more expensive than the scribe.
Is there any progress in Europe? The “Woodblock Print” made its way from China to Europe around 1300 A.D.
One of the First Objects Created from Woodblocks in Europe…
The Guy Who “Changes” Everything
The Gutenberg Printing Press Developed in Germany in A.D. 1450
Early Printed Works Were….
A Quick Comparison China- 500 B.C. Germany A.D. Korea- 868 A.D.