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Copyright © 2005 Juniper Networks, Inc. Proprietary and Confidentialwww.juniper.net 4-1 Operating Juniper Networks Routers in the Enterprise Chapter 6:

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Juniper Networks, Inc. Proprietary and Confidentialwww.juniper.net 4-1 Operating Juniper Networks Routers in the Enterprise Chapter 6:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Juniper Networks, Inc. Proprietary and Confidentialwww.juniper.net 4-1 Operating Juniper Networks Routers in the Enterprise Chapter 6: Routing Protocols and Policy

2 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc. 6-2 Education Services Chapter Objectives After successfully completing this chapter, you will be able to: Describe routing tables and route preferences Describe the role of JUNOS software routing policy Describe J-Web support for routing protocols and policy Configure and monitor static routes Explain the role of IGPs Configure and monitor RIP Configure and monitor OSPF

3 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc. 6-3 Education Services Agenda: Routing Protocols and Policy Routing Table and Route Preferences Routing Policy J-Web Support for Routing Protocols and Policy Configuring and Monitoring Static Routing Interior Gateway Protocols Configuring and Monitoring RIP Configuring and Monitoring OSPF

4 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc. 6-4 Education Services The Routing Table Compiles information learned from routing protocols and other routing information sources Selects an active route to each destination Populates forwarding table Juniper Networks routers maintain multiple routing tables inet.0 for IPv4 unicast routing Others are outside the scope of this course Direct Routing Table Forwarding Table Routing Protocol Databases Other Routing Information Sources Static OSPF

5 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc. 6-5 Education Services Route Preference Ranks routes received from different sources Primary criterion for selecting the active route Ranges from 0 to 4,294,967,295, with lower value preferred Route Preference Values Routing Information SourceDefault Preference Direct0 Local0 Static5 OSPF internal10 RIP100 Aggregate130 OSPF AS external150 BGP (both EBGP and IBGP)170

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7 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc. 6-7 Education Services Agenda: Routing Protocols and Policy Routing Table and Route Preferences Routing Policy J-Web Support for Routing Protocols and Policy Configuring and Monitoring Static Routing Interior Gateway Protocols Configuring and Monitoring RIP Configuring and Monitoring OSPF

8 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc. 6-8 Education Services Routing Policy Overview Controls routing information transferred into and out of the routing table Can ignore or change incoming routing information Can suppress or change outgoing routing information Policies are made up of match/action pairs Match conditions can be protocol specific Apply policy when: You do not want to import all learned routes into the routing table You do not want to advertise all learned routes to neighboring routers You want one protocol to receive routes from another protocol You want to modify information associated with a route

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10 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Import and Export Policies Perform policy filtering with respect to the JUNOS software routing table JUNOS software applies import policy prior to inclusion in the routing table JUNOS software applies export policy only to active routes in the routing table Neighbors Protocol Routing Table Forwarding Table Neighbors Protocol Import Routes PFE Export

11 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Routing Policy Flow Policies can be chained together Evaluation proceeds left to right until a terminating action of accept or reject is reached Individual policies can contain a collection of terms Flow-control actions such as next-policy supported Route Term A Accept or Reject Term B Term C Accept or Reject Policy 1 Term A Accept or Reject Term B Term C Accept or Reject Policy 2 Term A Accept or Reject Default Policy Policy n Accept Reject

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13 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services IGP Default Policies Protocols are associated with a default policy OSPF: Import: Accept all LSAs flooded by that protocol Export: Reject everything LSA flooding announces OSPF-learned and local routes RIP: Import: Accept all learned RIP routes, export nothing Export: Reject everything RIP requires export policy to announce RIP (or other) routes

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15 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Agenda: Routing Protocols and Policy Routing Table and Route Preferences Routing Policy J-Web Support for Routing Protocols and Policy Configuring and Monitoring Static Routing Interior Gateway Protocols Configuring and Monitoring RIP Configuring and Monitoring OSPF

16 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services J-Web and Routing Protocols (1 of 2) J-Web routing protocol wizards found at Configuration > Quick Configuration > Routing and Protocols Quickly establish basic connectivity for: Static, RIP, OSPF, and BGP routing

17 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services J-Web and Routing Protocols (2 of 2) Use J-Web configuration editor (or the CLI) to: Tweak OSPF default route origination, summarization, authentication, etc. Create and apply routing policy

18 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Monitoring Routing with J-Web Use J-Web to monitor routing at the Monitor > Routing page Displays protocol-specific information Displays the routing table

19 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Sample J-Web Route Table Display Table name and summary Route table contents Filter display using these fields

20 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Agenda: Routing Protocols and Policy Routing Table and Route Preferences Routing Policy J-Web Support for Routing Protocols and Policy Configuring and Monitoring Static Routing Interior Gateway Protocols Configuring and Monitoring RIP Configuring and Monitoring OSPF

21 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Static Routing Static routing is often used when single-homed to a service provider Static default route directs external traffic to the service provider show route protocol static inet.0: 8 destinations, 8 routes (8 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both /0 *[Static/5] 00:00:15 > via se-0/0/2.0 A default route Next-hop interface/IP address Route source/global preference Service Provider Access Router se-0/0/ / Static Routing

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23 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Use static routing to provide connectivity among all WAN, LAN, and loopback addresses Static Routing Case Study Wintermute London lo0: se-1/0/1.2 fe-0/0/1.1 fe-0/0/1.2 se-1/0/0.1 HARLIE Tokyo lo0: / / /30 (DCE)(DTE)

24 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Default Route Configuration Access the J-Web static routing wizard at the Configuration > Quick Configuration > Routing and Protocols page Create a default route on London Create a default route by identifying the next-hop IP address

25 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Static Route Configuration Static route definitions at Tokyo Provides reachability to London s loopback address and /30 network

26 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Confirming Static Routing Use J-Web or the CLI to display the routing table and to confirm reachability Both static routes are active at Tokyo Test traffic sourced from the LAN interface to confirm end-to-end routing Wintermute London lo0: se-1/0/1.2 fe-0/0/1.1 fe-0/0/1.2 se-1/0/0.1 HARLIE Tokyo lo0: / / /30 (DCE)(DTE) show route protocol static inet.0: 9 destinations, 9 routes (9 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both /30 *[Static/5] 00:01:54 > to via se-1/0/ /32 *[Static/5] 00:03:09 > to via se-1/0/0.0 ping source count 2 PING ( ): 56 data bytes 64 bytes from : icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time= ms 64 bytes from : icmp_seq=1 ttl=255 time= ms ping statistics packets transmitted, 2 packets received, 0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = /47.951/85.853/ ms

27 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Lab 4Parts 1–3: Static Routing Configure and monitor static routing. Note: This lab and future labs require each team to use the Sydney router, which is logically segmented into several virtual routers. Each student router connects to a virtual router in the form of xx-VR, where xx is a two letter abbreviation for the directly connected student router. Please keep in mind that the command syntax is slightly different when working with a virtual router. Following are some examples: ping routing-instance LO-VR show route table LO-VR traceroute routing-instance LO-VR

28 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Agenda: Routing Protocols and Policy Routing Table and Route Preferences Routing Policy J-Web Support for Routing Protocols and Policy Configuring and Monitoring Static Routing Interior Gateway Protocols Configuring and Monitoring RIP Configuring and Monitoring OSPF

29 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Interior Gateway Protocol Overview IGPs provide internal reachability Promote connectivity but lack administrative controls needed to enforce routing policy Normally, link-state routing (OSPF) is deployed Optimal convergence and bandwidth usage based on reliable flooding of link-state updates Builds a replicated network topology database at all stations within an OSPF area or IS-IS level and uses SPF to find optimal paths RIP and static routing are also common Router A Router B lo0: /32 Router C lo0: /32 lo0: /32 Adjacencies Router A can reach , cost 0 Flooded LSAs build link-state database

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31 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Agenda: Routing Protocols and Policy Routing Table and Route Preferences Routing Policy J-Web Support for Routing Protocols and Policy Configuring and Monitoring Static Routing Interior Gateway Protocols Configuring and Monitoring RIP Configuring and Monitoring OSPF

32 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services What Is RIP? RIP is an IGP that is used within an AS Two versions: RIPv1 (RFC 1058) RIPv2 (RFC 2453) Primary characteristics: Distance-vector routing protocol; prone to loops and slow convergence Split horizon and poison reverse for loop prevention Hop count is used as the metric for path selection, based on Bellman-Ford distance-vector routing algorithm Routing updates sent every 30 seconds

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34 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services RIP V2 Update: /30, cost /32, cost 1 RIP Message Types Two message types: Request message Asks neighbors to send routes Response message Carries route updates Advertises up to 25 routes per update Router decides how to handle routes in update Add, modify, or delete Wintermute London lo0: se-1/0/1.2 fe-0/0/1.1 fe-0/0/1.2 se-1/0/0.1 HARLIE Tokyo lo0: / / /30 (DCE)(DTE)

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36 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services RIPv2 Features Backward compatible with RIPv1 Update includes prefix length to support VLSM Authentication on a per-message basis Simple password or MD5 authentication Updates sent to multicast address You can configure broadcast-based updates / / / /30 The prefix is subnetted with a variable-length netmask RIP V2 updates include the netmask in updates to support VLSM Update: /26, Cost 1

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38 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services RIP Limitations Limitations: Maximum network diameter = 15 hops Regular updates include entire routing table approximately every 30 seconds Poison reverse increases size of routing updates Count to infinity slows route-loop prevention Metrics reflect hop count only Broadcasts between neighbors (RIPv1 only) Classful routing means no prefix length carried in route updates (RIPv1 only) No authentication mechanism exists (RIPv1 only) Has poor convergence

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40 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Use RIPv2 to provide connectivity among all WAN, LAN, and loopback addresses RIP Case Study Wintermute London lo0: se-1/0/1.2 fe-0/0/1.1 fe-0/0/1.2 se-1/0/0.1 HARLIE Tokyo lo0: / / /30 (DCE)(DTE)

41 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Configuring RIP: J-Web Use the J-Web Configuration > Quick Configuration > Routing and Protocols > RIP Routing wizard Automatically creates export policy to advertise RIP-enabled interface and learned RIP routes RIP is enabled RIP is enabled on LAN, WAN, and loopback interfaces

42 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services show protocols rip group jweb-rip { export [ jweb-policy-rip jweb-policy-direct ]; neighbor fe-0/0/1.0; neighbor lo0.0; neighbor se-1/0/1.0; } [edit] show policy-options policy-statement jweb-policy-rip { from protocol rip; then accept; } policy-statement jweb-policy-direct { from { protocol direct; interface [ fe-0/0/1.0 lo0.0 se-1/0/1.0 ]; } then accept; } The Resulting RIP Configuration Two export policies are in effect Export policies override default behavior by advertising RIP interfaces and learned RIP routes

43 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Monitoring RIP: J-Web Use the J-Web Monitor > Routing > RIP Information page to monitor general RIP operation Two routes learned via RIP RIP interface parameters

44 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Monitoring RIP Using the CLI (1 of 3) Show the state of your RIP interfaces using the show rip neighbor command show rip neighbor Source Destination Send Receive In Neighbor State Address Address Mode Mode Met se-1/0/1.0 Up mcast both 1 lo0.0 Up mcast both 1 fe-0/0/1.0 Up mcast both 1 Show routes learned via RIP using the show route protocol rip command show route protocol rip inet.0: 10 destinations, 10 routes (10 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both /30 *[RIP/100] 00:21:16, metric 2, tag 0 > to via se-1/0/ /32 *[RIP/100] 00:21:16, metric 2, tag 0 > to via se-1/0/ /32 *[RIP/100] 00:21:22, metric 1 MultiRecv

45 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Monitoring RIP Using the CLI (2 of 3) Display RIP routes advertised out an interface using the show route advertising-protocol rip neighbor command neighbor is the IP address of local RIP interface show route advertising-protocol rip inet.0: 10 destinations, 10 routes (10 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both /30 *[Direct/0] 01:19:23 > via fe-0/0/ /32 *[Direct/0] 01:19:23 > via lo0.0 Advertisement of the LAN and loopback addresses owned by London are confirmed on London s se-1/0/1 interface

46 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Monitoring RIP Using the CLI (3 of 3) Display RIP routes received on a particular interface using the show route receive-protocol rip neighbor command neighbor is the IP address of remote RIP neighbor show route receive-protocol rip inet.0: 10 destinations, 10 routes (10 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden) + = Active Route, - = Last Active, * = Both /30 *[RIP/100] 00:27:04, metric 2, tag 0 > to via se-1/0/ /32 *[RIP/100] 00:27:04, metric 2, tag 0 > to via se-1/0/1.0 RIP advertisements for the LAN and loopback addresses owned by Tokyo are confirmed on London s se-1/0/1 interface

47 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Lab 4Parts 4–5: RIP Configure and monitor RIP version 2.

48 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Agenda: Routing Protocols and Policy Routing Table and Route Preferences Routing Policy J-Web Support for Routing Protocols and Policy Configuring and Monitoring Static Routing Interior Gateway Protocols Configuring and Monitoring RIP Configuring and Monitoring OSPF

49 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services OSPF Protocol Overview OSPF is a link-state routing protocol OSPF reliably floods LSAs to distribute link-state information once an adjacency is formed Each router uses these LSAs to create a complete database for the network OSPF uses the SPF algorithm within the database to calculate the best route to every node in the network JUNOS software support for OSPF includes: RFC 1587, The OSPF NSSA Option RFC 2328, OSPF Version 2 RFC 2740, OSPF for IPv6 draft-katz-yeung-ospf-traffic-01.txt, Traffic Engineering Extensions to OSPF draft-ietf-katz-ward-bfd-00.txt, Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

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51 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services OSPF Router Terminology Internal router has all OSPF links in the same area Within Area 0, also called a backbone router Backbone router Any router with a link to Area 0 ABRs Routers that belong to more than one area are called area border routers Connect OSPF areas to the backbone Area 0 ASBRs Routers that inject routing information from outside the OSPF domain are called AS boundary routers

52 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services The Designated Router OSPF elects a DR to represent a broadcast segment Significantly reduces OSPF traffic on segment A backup DR is also elected to recover for DR failures DROther stations form adjacencies to the DR and BDR only BDR DR Adjacencies DROther

53 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services OSPF Neighbors Versus Adjacencies DR DROther Adjacent 2-way 2-way state to DROther routers is normal show ospf neighbor extensive Address Intf State ID Pri Dead fe-0/0/0.0 Full area , opt 0x42, DR , BDR Up 00:10:50, adjacent 00:10: fe-0/0/0.0 Full area , opt 0x42, DR , BDR Up 00:10:50, adjacent 00:10: fe-0/0/0.0 2Way area , opt 0x42, DR , BDR Up 00:08:10

54 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services OSPF Areas (1 of 2) Areas: Single AS can be divided into smaller groups called areas Areas reduce the link-state database because LSA flooding is now constrained to the area Routers maintain a separate link-state database on a per-area basis Each link-state database within an area must still be identical on all routers

55 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services OSPF Areas (2 of 2) Special OSPF area called the backbone area Backbone area ( ) distributes routing information between areas All other OSPF areas must connect to the backbone area All user traffic from one area to another must traverse the backbone

56 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services OSPF Area Relationships Backbone Area 1 Area 3 Area 2 ( ) RIP BGP External Routes Interarea Routes (Summary Routes) Intra-Area Routes

57 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services OSPF Area Types Stub areas Do not carry external routes Cannot contain ASBRs Totally stubby areas Stub areas that only receive the default route from the backbone Not-so-stubby areas Allow external routes to be advertised from the area but not received from another area

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59 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services OSPF Area Types Backbone Stub Area ( ) RIP BGP External Routes Interarea Routes (Summary Routes) Default Route Totally Stubby Area Not-So-Stubby Area Intra-Area Routes

60 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services OSPF LSA Types NSSA NSSA External Links Type 7 Used by NSSAa to import external routes into a stub area. ASBR External Links Type 5 Originated by an ASBR. Describe destinations external to the AS or a default route to the outside AS. DR Network Links Type 2 Originated for multi-access segments with more than one attached router. Describe all routers attached to the specific segment. Originated by a designated router (discussed later). Router Links Type 1 Describe the state and cost of the routers links (interfaces) to the area (intra-area). Summary Links Types 3 and 4 Originated by ABRs only. Describe networks in the AS but outside of area (interarea). Also describe the location of the ASBR. ABR ASBR

61 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Use a single OSPF area to provide connectivity among all WAN, LAN, and loopback addresses OSPF Case Study (Single-Area) OSPF Area 0 Wintermute London lo0: se-1/0/1.2 fe-0/0/1.1 fe-0/0/1.2 se-1/0/0.1 HARLIE Tokyo lo0: / / /30 (DCE)(DTE)

62 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Configuring OSPF: J-Web Use the J-Web OSPF wizard at the Configuration > Quick Configuration > Routing and Protocols page Configuration goal: A single-area OSPF network using the sample topology OSPF process enabled OSPF enabled on LAN, WAN, and loopback interfaces Defaults to lo0 address Area number and type

63 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services The Resulting OSPF Configuration Default OSPF import and export policies are in effect Explicit declaration of lo0 -based RID requires that OSPF run on loopback interface Otherwise, the loopback route will not be advertised Required because of explicit RID; can be set to passive [edit] show routing-options router-id ; [edit] show protocols ospf area { interface fe-0/0/1.0; interface se-1/0/1.0; interface lo0.0; }

64 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Monitoring OSPF: J-Web (1 of 2) Use the J-Web Monitor > Routing > OSPF Information page to monitor general OSPF operation OSPF neighbor and interface status OSPF protocol statistics

65 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Monitoring OSPF: J-Web (2 of 2) Use the J-Web Monitor > Routing > Route Information page to monitor OSPF routing information Current OSPF routes Filter matches OSPF routes only

66 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Monitoring OSPF Using the CLI (1 of 5) Use the show ospf route command to display routes learned and advertised into OSPF Includes routes for interfaces running OSPF show ospf route ? Possible completions: Execute this command abr Display OSPF routes to area border routers asbr Display OSPF routes to AS border routers detail Display detailed output extern Display external OSPF routes instance Name of OSPF instance inter Display interarea OSPF routes intra Display intraarea OSPF routes | Pipe through a command show ospf route detail Prefix Path Route NH Metric NextHop Nexthop Type Type Type Interface addr/label Intra Router IP 12 se-1/0/1.0 area , origin optional-capability 0x0, /24 Intra Network IP 13 se-1/0/1.0 area , origin Use switches to filter by OSPF route (LSA) type

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68 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services DR/BDR not elected on point-to-point links An OSPF neighbor was detected Monitoring OSPF Using the CLI (2 of 5) Use the show ospf interface command to display the OSPF interface parameters Add the detail or extensive switch for additional information show ospf interface Interface State Area DR ID BDR ID Nbrs fe-0/0/1.0 DR lo0.0 DR se-1/0/1.0 PtToPt

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70 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Monitoring OSPF Using the CLI (3 of 5) Use the show ospf neighbor command to display adjacency information show ospf neighbor Address Interface State ID Pri Dead se-1/0/1.0 Full Clear adjacencies with the clear ospf neighbor command clear ospf neighbor show ospf neighbor Address Interface State ID Pri Dead se-1/0/1.0 ExStart

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72 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Monitoring OSPF Using the CLI (4 of 5) Use the show ospf database command to display entries in the link-state database Filter the display by LSA type Use the detail or extensive switches for added information show ospf database ? Possible completions: Execute this command advertising-router Router ID of advertising router area OSPF area ID asbrsummary Show summary AS boundary router link-state database brief Display brief output (default) detail Display detailed output extensive Display extensive output extern Show external link-state database... show ospf database OSPF link state database, area Type ID Adv Rtr Seq Age Opt Cksum Len Router x x2 0xce62 72 Router * x x2 0x9b79 72 Self-originated LSAs marked with *

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74 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Use the clear ospf database command to clear the link-state database Normally, existing LSAs are simply reflooded over existing adjacencies OSPF supports a purge option that forces the refreshing of all LSAs clear ospf database purge show ospf database OSPF link state database, area Type ID Adv Rtr Seq Age Opt Cksum Len Router x x2 0xc Router * x a 0 0x2 0x937d 72 Monitoring OSPF Using the CLI (5 of 5) The purge switch forces all LSAs to the maximum age; the originating router will refresh the LSA if it is still valid

75 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Lab 4–Part 6: OSPF Single Area Configure and monitor single-area OSPF.

76 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Use multiple OSPF areas to provide connectivity among all WAN, LAN, and loopback addresses Authenticate OSPF exchanges between neighbors OSPF Case Study (Multiarea) OSPF Area 0 Wintermute London lo0: se-1/0/1.2 fe-0/0/1.1 fe-0/0/1.2 se-1/0/0.1 HARLIE Tokyo lo0: / / /30 (DCE)(DTE) OSPF Area 1 OSPF Area 2

77 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services [edit] show routing-options router-id ; [edit] show protocols ospf area { authentication-type md5; interface lo0.0; interface se-1/0/1.0 { authentication { md5 1 key "$9$vW7M7Vg4ZjkPJG"; ## SECRET-DATA } area { authentication-type md5; interface fe-0/0/1.0 { authentication { md5 1 key "$9$5T6AB1hrK8Ec"; ## SECRET-DATA } Multiarea OSPF Configuration Required because of explicit RID; can be set to passive Area and interface configuration Authentication parameters

78 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Use the show ospf interface command to display the OSPF interface parameters Add the detail or extensive switch for additional information show ospf interface Interface State Area DR ID BDR ID Nbrs lo0.0 DR se-1/0/1.0 PtToPt fe-0/0/1.0 DR Monitoring Multiarea OSPF (1 of 2) Multiple OSPF areas indicates routers role as ABR OSPF neighbors detected

79 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services show ospf database OSPF link state database, Area Type ID Adv Rtr Seq Age Opt Cksum Len Router x x22 0xb Router * x x22 0x16ce 60 Summary x x22 0xb Summary * x x22 0x4c70 28 Summary * x x22 0x59c2 28 OSPF link state database, Area Type ID Adv Rtr Seq Age Opt Cksum Len Router x x22 0xe5b2 48 Router * x c 2 0x22 0xf Network * x x22 0xc96 32 Summary * x x22 0xdcd6 28 Summary * x x22 0xc5ec 28 Summary * x x22 0x20f8 28 Summary * x x22 0x21f6 28 Monitoring Multiarea OSPF (2 of 2) Use the show ospf database command to display entries in the link-state database for all areas

80 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Summarize link advertisements on ABR Summarize the x/30 routes from Amsterdam into Area 0 on London OSPF Case Study (Summarization) OSPF Area 0 Wintermute London lo0: se-1/0/1.2 fe-0/0/1 se-1/0/0.1 HARLIE Tokyo lo0: / /30 (DCE)(DTE) OSPF Area 2 Amsterdam.1.2 fe-0/0/1 fe-2/0/ / / / /30 lo0:

81 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services show ospf database OSPF link state database, Area Type ID Adv Rtr Seq Age Opt Cksum Len Router x x22 0xb Router * x x22 0x14cf 60 Summary x x22 0xb Summary * x a 552 0x22 0x4a71 28 Summary * x x22 0x5a8a 28 Summary * x x22 0x32ae 28 Summary * x x22 0xad2 28 Summary * x x22 0xe1f6 28 Summary * x x22 0x57c3 28 OSPF link state database, Area Type ID Adv Rtr Seq Age Opt Cksum Len Router x x22 0x6caf 96 Router * x d 237 0x22 0xf Network * x x22 0xc96 32 Summary * x x22 0xdcd6 28 Summary * x x22 0xc5ec 28 Summary * x x22 0x20f8 28 Summary * x x22 0x21f6 28 OSPF Database (Before Summarization)

82 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services [edit] show protocols ospf area { authentication-type md5; interface lo0.0; interface se-1/0/1.0 { authentication { md5 1 key "$9$vW7M7Vg4ZjkPJG"; ## SECRET-DATA } area { area-range /28; authentication-type md5; interface fe-0/0/1.0 { authentication { md5 1 key "$9$5T6AB1hrK8Ec"; ## SECRET-DATA } Summary Configuration Added area-range statement will summarize all x/30 prefixes

83 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services show ospf database OSPF link state database, Area Type ID Adv Rtr Seq Age Opt Cksum Len Router x x22 0xb Router * x x22 0x10d1 60 Summary x x22 0xb Summary * x b 855 0x22 0x Summary * x x22 0x10df 28 Summary * x a 855 0x22 0x55c4 28 OSPF link state database, Area Type ID Adv Rtr Seq Age Opt Cksum Len Router x x22 0x6ab0 96 Router * x f 237 0x22 0xf23a 36 Network * x x22 0x Summary * x b 237 0x22 0xd6d9 28 Summary * x a 855 0x22 0xc3ed 28 Summary * x x22 0x1ef9 28 Summary * x a 855 0x22 0x1ff7 28 OSPF Database (After Summarization)

84 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Configuring IGP Tracing Use tracing to debug the operation of your IGP A typical OSPF tracing configuration: Monitor the resulting ospf-trace log file using the monitor start log-file-name or the show log log-file-name CLI commands Use Esc+q to toggle terminal output when monitoring and monitor stop to discontinue monitoring Turn off tracing by deleting the traceoptions stanza [edit protocols ospf] show traceoptions file ospf-trace; flag error detail; flag hello detail; flag lsa-update;

85 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Review Questions 1.Describe the general purpose of routing policy. 2.Describe the purpose and role of an IGP. 3.What is the default import and export policy for RIP? 4.How can you confirm OSPF adjacency status? 5.How can you display only those routes that are learned by a certain protocol? 6.What is the purpose of the ABR and the ASBR? 7.Why might OSPF summarization be a good idea?

86 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services Lab 4Part 7: OSPF Multiarea Configure and monitor multiarea OSPF. Summarize link-state information into Area 0.

87 Copyright © 2007 Juniper Networks, Inc Education Services


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