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Pictorial Data C507 Scientific Writing Session 12.

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Presentation on theme: "Pictorial Data C507 Scientific Writing Session 12."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pictorial Data C507 Scientific Writing Session 12

2 Tables When you have numerical data, especially lots of numerical data, you will need to decide if you should make tables and what tables are needed When you have numerical data, especially lots of numerical data, you will need to decide if you should make tables and what tables are needed

3 Tables First, check the journal Instructions for Authors to see what number of tables it allows First, check the journal Instructions for Authors to see what number of tables it allows If you do not see this indicated, look at a few past issues to get a sense of what is right If you do not see this indicated, look at a few past issues to get a sense of what is right So by estimating # of text words, count total of tables and illustrations, and calculate number per 1000 words of text So by estimating # of text words, count total of tables and illustrations, and calculate number per 1000 words of text General rule is no more than 1 table per 1000 words of text- and since most manuscripts have about 250 words per page, that is no more than 1 table per 4 pages of manuscript General rule is no more than 1 table per 1000 words of text- and since most manuscripts have about 250 words per page, that is no more than 1 table per 4 pages of manuscript

4 Tables So, now, if you know that you must have illustration, you may need to reduce the number of tables by one as a result So, now, if you know that you must have illustration, you may need to reduce the number of tables by one as a result Ask yourself: Do I really need all the tables I am planning? Ask yourself: Do I really need all the tables I am planning?

5 Tables Look at this table Look at this table PTPenicillinNoxicillin PTPenicillinNoxicillin

6 Tables Of the 3 patients with negative penicillin skin-tests, one was positive to noxicillin. Of the 7 patients positive for penicillin, 2 were positive for noxicillin. The difference in noxicillin positivity between the 2 penicillin groups is not statistically significant, Fishers exact test (p>0.05). Of the 3 patients with negative penicillin skin-tests, one was positive to noxicillin. Of the 7 patients positive for penicillin, 2 were positive for noxicillin. The difference in noxicillin positivity between the 2 penicillin groups is not statistically significant, Fishers exact test (p>0.05).

7 Tables But some tables should be dropped, not to be replaced by statements in text but by illustrations. These are tables important for their known or potential relationships, ie. But some tables should be dropped, not to be replaced by statements in text but by illustrations. These are tables important for their known or potential relationships, ie. Data on two related variables Data on two related variables Data on one or more variables changing over time Data on one or more variables changing over time Data that may be interesting to the reader for the extent of their differences and how these differences might be related to unknown factors Data that may be interesting to the reader for the extent of their differences and how these differences might be related to unknown factors

8 Tables Tables should be used when the reader will expect to be given exact values for numerical data Tables should be used when the reader will expect to be given exact values for numerical data

9 Two Rules for Tables with Numerical Data Do not use tables when the data can be summarized in the text with a few sentences, or when the relations of data to each other or to a time sequence can be made more clearly in a graph Do not use tables when the data can be summarized in the text with a few sentences, or when the relations of data to each other or to a time sequence can be made more clearly in a graph Use tables when the readers will want the exact values of more data than can be summarized in a few sentences of text Use tables when the readers will want the exact values of more data than can be summarized in a few sentences of text

10 Violations of Those Rules Of course, there are some times when you can suspend the rules Of course, there are some times when you can suspend the rules You can abstract information from case reports to make it reader friendly You can abstract information from case reports to make it reader friendly You can summarize information from a series of reports You can summarize information from a series of reports

11 Parts of a Table The parts of a table are identified by editors and printers with terms that should be known by authors because they are often used in correspondance about revision of papers The parts of a table are identified by editors and printers with terms that should be known by authors because they are often used in correspondance about revision of papers Parts include: Title; Field; Row; Column; Column Heading; Row Heading; Footnote; Box Heading Parts include: Title; Field; Row; Column; Column Heading; Row Heading; Footnote; Box Heading

12 Parts of a Table Title: should briefly describe the content of the table and includes the table number. It should be informative. Titles for tables are not listed similar to figure legends, but are applied to each table. Title: should briefly describe the content of the table and includes the table number. It should be informative. Titles for tables are not listed similar to figure legends, but are applied to each table. The title should avoid stating the information carried by the column headings and row headings The title should avoid stating the information carried by the column headings and row headings Further detail can be provided in the footnotes Further detail can be provided in the footnotes

13 Parts of a Table Field: is the space carrying numerical data and descriptive terms or phrases that together illustrate the message carried by the table Field: is the space carrying numerical data and descriptive terms or phrases that together illustrate the message carried by the table Columns should be centered under their headings and numerical data should be centered on expressed or implied decimals Columns should be centered under their headings and numerical data should be centered on expressed or implied decimals The content of the field is arranged in horizontal rows and vertical columns The content of the field is arranged in horizontal rows and vertical columns

14 Parts of a Table Each Column Heading identifies the kind of data and descriptions lined up vertically in the column beneath it Each Column Heading identifies the kind of data and descriptions lined up vertically in the column beneath it Each column heading for numerical data should include a statement of the unit of measure and it should be consistent for all data under the heading Each column heading for numerical data should include a statement of the unit of measure and it should be consistent for all data under the heading Each Row Heading identifies the kind of data and descriptions aligned in the horizontal row adjacent to it- also provide unit measure Each Row Heading identifies the kind of data and descriptions aligned in the horizontal row adjacent to it- also provide unit measure

15 Parts of a Table The footnotes explain details of content in the table The footnotes explain details of content in the table

16 Parts of a Table The column headings for the field are alos known collectively as the box heading, and the column heading for the row headings beneath it is called the box heading from the stub (stub being a terms used for the group of row headings) The column headings for the field are alos known collectively as the box heading, and the column heading for the row headings beneath it is called the box heading from the stub (stub being a terms used for the group of row headings)

17 Journal Style and Specs A useful rule for table width in a journal with a double-column page is no more than 60 characters (and equivalent spaces) in a row (with its row heading) for a single-column table and no more than 120 for a table running the full width of the page. A useful rule for table width in a journal with a double-column page is no more than 60 characters (and equivalent spaces) in a row (with its row heading) for a single-column table and no more than 120 for a table running the full width of the page.

18 Journal Style and Specs If you need to use a wider table, the journal may be able to accommodate it on facing pages or by turning it sideways, but before you prepare such a table look to see if it can be split into 2 tables If you need to use a wider table, the journal may be able to accommodate it on facing pages or by turning it sideways, but before you prepare such a table look to see if it can be split into 2 tables Another solution would be to switch the column and row headings Another solution would be to switch the column and row headings A good test to apply to your tables format is to compare the number of column headings to the number of row headings. If the ratio is greater than 2:1, consider reorienting your table A good test to apply to your tables format is to compare the number of column headings to the number of row headings. If the ratio is greater than 2:1, consider reorienting your table

19 Logical Table Structure The reader should be able to understand each of your tables without referring to the text The reader should be able to understand each of your tables without referring to the text An adequate title will help to ensure that understanding An adequate title will help to ensure that understanding You need to think about the relations of the data so that it is all organized logically You need to think about the relations of the data so that it is all organized logically

20 Tables Intersections of columns and rows should not be left blank. If the appropriate datum at such an intersection is none, indicate this fact with a zero Intersections of columns and rows should not be left blank. If the appropriate datum at such an intersection is none, indicate this fact with a zero If the datum at an intersection is not given, it absence should be indicated by three dots (…) or an abbreviated notation explained in a footnote, such as NA or ND (not applicable/not done), If the datum at an intersection is not given, it absence should be indicated by three dots (…) or an abbreviated notation explained in a footnote, such as NA or ND (not applicable/not done),

21 A Few More Rules Large numbers that dont need a high degree of accuracy can be expressed in smaller units with appropriate column headings Large numbers that dont need a high degree of accuracy can be expressed in smaller units with appropriate column headings Ie, Cases per thousand- 120; rather than total cases- 120,000 Ie, Cases per thousand- 120; rather than total cases- 120,000 Avoid the use of such headings as x 10 3 since the reader will not know if this means to multiply or has been multiplied. Avoid the use of such headings as x 10 3 since the reader will not know if this means to multiply or has been multiplied.

22 A Few More Rules Do not mix units in a single column of data Do not mix units in a single column of data This is easier to do than you might think, ie. This is easier to do than you might think, ie. Days and weeksDays and weeks Avoid pseudo-precision in giving percentages Avoid pseudo-precision in giving percentages Percentages given for compared fractions with small denominators are likely to imply statistical significance Percentages given for compared fractions with small denominators are likely to imply statistical significance

23 A Few More Rules Be sure that all data in a table agree completely and exactly with their presentation anywhere else in the paper (abstract, text or another table) Be sure that all data in a table agree completely and exactly with their presentation anywhere else in the paper (abstract, text or another table) Be sure that the data in a table is internally consistent- that, for example, percentages that should add up to 100% do add up correctly Be sure that the data in a table is internally consistent- that, for example, percentages that should add up to 100% do add up correctly Check all mathematical operations implied in a table Check all mathematical operations implied in a table

24 A Few More Rules To save space, editors may allow abbreviations to be sued in tables that they would not allow in the text, but these should be explained in a footnote to the table To save space, editors may allow abbreviations to be sued in tables that they would not allow in the text, but these should be explained in a footnote to the table

25 A Few More Rules Shorthand forms for dates, such as 5/15/99, can be misunderstood in different countries. In Europe, 4/11/81 means the fourth of November 1981; in the US it means the 11 th of April. Shorthand forms for dates, such as 5/15/99, can be misunderstood in different countries. In Europe, 4/11/81 means the fourth of November 1981; in the US it means the 11 th of April. Use the form: number of day/abbreviated month/abbreviated year to avoid misunderstanding: 4 Nov 81 Use the form: number of day/abbreviated month/abbreviated year to avoid misunderstanding: 4 Nov 81

26 A Few More Rules Double space entries Double space entries Do not use internal rules and lines in tables except for under column headings to separate them clearly from the field Do not use internal rules and lines in tables except for under column headings to separate them clearly from the field Start each table on a separate page Start each table on a separate page KISS KISS

27 Illustrations Illustrations should not be used because they are available, but for one or more of three needs Illustrations should not be used because they are available, but for one or more of three needs Evidence Evidence Efficiency Efficiency Emphasis Emphasis

28 Evidence Illustrations should be used only when they carry evidence needed to support a conclusion Illustrations should be used only when they carry evidence needed to support a conclusion

29 Efficiency An illustration may be far more efficient in presenting the evidence for a conclusion in the paper than a long statement in the text. An illustration may be far more efficient in presenting the evidence for a conclusion in the paper than a long statement in the text.

30 Emphasis Emphasis is the reason least likely to be accepted by the editor for use of illustrations. Emphasis is the reason least likely to be accepted by the editor for use of illustrations.

31 Editorial Considerations You should retain those illustrations that are justified by needs of evidence, efficiency or emphasis- and reject all others or the editor will do it for you You should retain those illustrations that are justified by needs of evidence, efficiency or emphasis- and reject all others or the editor will do it for you Editors want to hold down the total number of illustrations because of high costs and difficulties in page layout. Editors want to hold down the total number of illustrations because of high costs and difficulties in page layout.

32 Editorial Considerations We have two rules on not using illustrations: We have two rules on not using illustrations: Do not use illustrations to make points that can be stated just as clearly and convincingly in the text Do not use illustrations to make points that can be stated just as clearly and convincingly in the text Do not use illustrations that duplicate data presented in tables Do not use illustrations that duplicate data presented in tables Or: When in doubt, leave it out. Or: When in doubt, leave it out.

33 Illustrations Halftones- tone patterns of shapes from white through black of a continuous tone image made by photographing or scanning through a finely ruled screen with corssing opaque lines; the screening reduces the tones to a dot formation for reproduction by printing Halftones- tone patterns of shapes from white through black of a continuous tone image made by photographing or scanning through a finely ruled screen with corssing opaque lines; the screening reduces the tones to a dot formation for reproduction by printing

34 Illustrations Line art- graphs, algorithms, tracings, schematic drawings, charts Line art- graphs, algorithms, tracings, schematic drawings, charts

35 Illustrations Each illustrations should be cited, in consecutive order, in the text and accompanied by a legend Each illustrations should be cited, in consecutive order, in the text and accompanied by a legend

36 Technical Specs B/W B/W Submit as unmounted high-contrast glossy prints, 5x7 inches in size Submit as unmounted high-contrast glossy prints, 5x7 inches in size If using a computer, do not send dot matrix copy If using a computer, do not send dot matrix copy Do not send original radiographs- send prints Do not send original radiographs- send prints You will need to send 3 copies (one for production, 2 for review) You will need to send 3 copies (one for production, 2 for review)

37 Technical Specs Label each picture on the back, with your name and with an arrow indicating the top (prepare the label for the back before affixing it) Label each picture on the back, with your name and with an arrow indicating the top (prepare the label for the back before affixing it) Do not submit any color prints without editorial approval- color is horribly expensive to reproduce Do not submit any color prints without editorial approval- color is horribly expensive to reproduce

38 Technical Specs If letters or symbols (such as arrows) would aid in understanding, you can: If letters or symbols (such as arrows) would aid in understanding, you can: Put them on the glossy using press-on art, or Put them on the glossy using press-on art, or Use a duplicate set of figures and indicate on them where you need the arrows placed Use a duplicate set of figures and indicate on them where you need the arrows placed Match the size of letter or symbol to the illustration so when it is reduced or enlarged it can be read properly Match the size of letter or symbol to the illustration so when it is reduced or enlarged it can be read properly

39 Technical Specs It is better to list each separate illustration as a separate illustration It is better to list each separate illustration as a separate illustration By which I mean, do not make a set of Figure 1a, 1b, 1c, unless it is critical that all such figures be set and placed in close proximity. Also, this is confusing when it comes to preparing a legend for the complex figure. By which I mean, do not make a set of Figure 1a, 1b, 1c, unless it is critical that all such figures be set and placed in close proximity. Also, this is confusing when it comes to preparing a legend for the complex figure.

40 Technical Specs On line art graphs, each axis should be clearly labeled with the quantity measured and the units of measure used. On line art graphs, each axis should be clearly labeled with the quantity measured and the units of measure used.

41 Technical Specs Where color and B/W is being used in one article, do not number these sequentially if the color and the B/W are mixed together. This adds huge cost and means that the color will print on more than one page- color is usually set all together in the middle. Where color and B/W is being used in one article, do not number these sequentially if the color and the B/W are mixed together. This adds huge cost and means that the color will print on more than one page- color is usually set all together in the middle.

42 Photo Consent You need consent from any person depicted in a photograph You need consent from any person depicted in a photograph From a patient or subject From a patient or subject From a doctor, even if an author From a doctor, even if an author If a minor, permission is needed from both parents (this is a journal requirement, not a legal one in most states- unless parents are divorced, and then you need both) If a minor, permission is needed from both parents (this is a journal requirement, not a legal one in most states- unless parents are divorced, and then you need both)

43 Legends Provide a legend for each figure in the paper Provide a legend for each figure in the paper Put all legends on one sheet (more if needed) at the end of the paper Put all legends on one sheet (more if needed) at the end of the paper Make sure you have a call-out for each figure in the text Make sure you have a call-out for each figure in the text


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