2 TERMS TO NOTE layout and design Artwork- any illustrations, transfer type, drawings, logos, or other artistic renderings submitted for printing in the yearbookGraphics- a catch-all term given to printing effects and devices used to attract a reader’s attention and to help the communications process (tinted screens, rule and tool lines, display type and artwork)
3 TERMS TO NOTE layout and design Headline- type set in larger point size (usually 14 points or higher) used to attract the reader’s attention and provide information about the stories contentSubhead- a secondary headline, usually smaller than the primary headlineBody copy- the story or main text or any copy other than the headlines subheads or captionsCaptions- (also called a cut line) copy that describes the persons, action and/or event in the photograph. Every photo must have a caption. Captions should describe the who, what, where, when, why and how of the photo.
4 TERMS TO NOTE layout and design External margins- a margin with white space that frames a double page spreadInternal margins- the consistent spacing between all elements on the spread; usually 1 picaGutter- the area between the two facing pages when the books are openPica- measuring unit used on pages; about one sixth of an inch
5 TERMS TO NOTE layout and design White space- the absence of elements in an area on a spread; it appears because it is not covered by photos, artwork, graphics or typeTrapped white space- white space that cannot escape from the page two different ways; this is NOT good design (picture caption picture)
6 TERMS TO NOTE layout and design Rule line- a black line with the width measured in pointsTool line- a rule line that is reversed to appear whiteEye line- a horizontal line (actual or implied) running across a spread above or below the actual center of the spread; its purpose is to create unity, giving readers a visual point of reference and drawing them across the gutter
7 TERMS TO NOTE layout and design Folio- a page number; accompanying words or phrases identifying the content are called folio tabs
8 Always design a layout as a double page spread layout and designBASIC PAGE DESIGNAlways design a layout as a double page spreadDo not design two facing pages separately. Think of the pages as two halves of the same whole. You can connect the pages by crossing the gutter with a photo (usually the dominant). Be careful not to cross the gutter with a headline or other copy because some of the copy is bound to get lost in the gutter when printed. If it is impossible to cross the gutter with a photo, line the photos along the edge of the gutter.8
9 Select a column format for the spread and stick with that format. layout and designBASIC PAGE DESIGNSelect a column format for the spread and stick with that format.During your first few attempts at designing a layout, select an either six, eight or nine column format.These columns serve as guidelines as to where your design elements begin and end.At first, keep your captions one column wide, and try not to have your body copy more than three columns wide.A columnar format gives the eye a vertical structure and ensures alignment and consistent widths of the elements.
10 Draw the dominant photo first. layout and designBASIC PAGE DESIGNDraw the dominant photo first.The size and placement of your dominant photo has an effect on all other elements on your spread. After placing the dominant, surround that photo with two to six smaller pictures of varying sizes.
11 Use only one dominant photo. layout and designBASIC PAGE DESIGNUse only one dominant photo.This photo should be at least two and a half times larger than the other photos. To ensure visual impact, make sure your dominant photo is the strongest photo on the spread.
12 BASIC PAGE DESIGN layout and design Use only one dominant photo. Use consistent internal marginsTouch all outer margins on each page with a major element so you frame the spread with the white margin.This space between elements are usually one pica.12
13 BASIC PAGE DESIGN layout and design Use a variety of photo shapes and sizes.Try to stick to rectangular photos.Do NOT use photos that are squares.
14 Keep all copy to the outside of the spread. layout and designBASIC PAGE DESIGNKeep all copy to the outside of the spread.Make sure that no copy comes within two picas from the edge of the page. When designing a layout the copy is the last thing that you put on the page.You place the photos first.
15 Always make the captions touch their photos. layout and designBASIC PAGE DESIGNAlways make the captions touch their photos.The caption should always touch the photo it describes. Captions may be placed above, below, to the left, or to the right of the photo. Never stack more than two captions.
16 BASIC GRAPHICS layout and design Rule lines A rule line is a black line with the width measured in points. Rule lines should be used to enhance the design of the layout. The rules must serve a purpose and be used sparingly. Rule lines should also be thin (hair line, one, two, three or four points) and straight as not to create stair steps or other annoying patterns.Rule lines can be used in close or loose register around photos, screens or type, or between columns in a copy block. Close register is the placing of to elements within three points of one another, generally meaning that the elements will be printed with no space between them.
17 BASIC GRAPHICS layout and design ScreensGray screens (actually percentage of black) can be a simple and inexpensive way to add texture, depth, and the illusion of color to a spread. Screen can appear as a background for type, as shadow boxes, as a fill for large letters or rule lines, or as background for an entire or limited area. Standard percentages are shown below.
18 “GOOD DESIGN IS GOOD DESIGN” layout and design“GOOD DESIGN IS GOOD DESIGN”ContrastThe idea behind contrast to avoid elements on the page that are merely similar. If the elements (type color, size, line thickness, shape, space, etc.) are not the same, then make them very different. Contrast is often the most important visual attraction on the page.Varied photo shapes and sizesColor/black and whiteType contrasts (serif v. sans serif, size, etc.)White space v. grey and black space
19 “GOOD DESIGN IS GOOD DESIGN” layout and design“GOOD DESIGN IS GOOD DESIGN”RepetitionRepeat visual elements of the design throughout the piece. You can repeat color, shape, texture, spatial relationships, line thickness, sizes, etc. This helps develop the organization and strengthens the unity.Consistent placement of spread elementsPhoto shape repetitionRepetition of elements throughout a section or the entire book
20 “GOOD DESIGN IS GOOD DESIGN” layout and design“GOOD DESIGN IS GOOD DESIGN”AlignmentNothing should be placed on the page arbitrarily. Every element should have some visual connect with another element on the page. This creates a clean, sophisticated, fresh look.Crossing the gutterCaptions touching photos they describeConsistent internal and external marginsHeadlines over body copy
21 “GOOD DESIGN IS GOOD DESIGN” layout and design“GOOD DESIGN IS GOOD DESIGN”ProximityItems relating to each other should be grouped close together. When several items are in close proximity to each other, they become one visual unit rather than several separate units. This helps organize the information and reduces clutter.Creating copy unit (head, subhead, body text)Captions touching photos they describePhotos clustered around dominant