Presentation on theme: "Visual Presentation of Data"— Presentation transcript:
1 Visual Presentation of Data Azam Raufee, Kowsar Medical Institute,
2 Visual Presentation of Data TablesFiguresNontabular Material
3 TablesLarge amounts of detailed quantitative information in a smaller spaceItem-to-item comparisonsMany quantitative values simultaneouslyIndividual data values preciselyComplex relationships in data
4 Essential component - > present detailed information effectively and in ways that text alone cannotStudy results -> Summarize, organize, and condense complex or detailed dataNOTEA proper table -> doesn’t require explanation
5 Note: Table PositionAs referred to in the textPresent numerical data
6 Tabulation (a brief, in-text table) placed directly in the textUnnecessary titles, numbering, and rules1 or 2 columnsboldface column headingsrequires the text to explain meaning
7 Matrix (a tabular structure ) To depict relationships among columns and rows -> uses numbers, short words (eg, no, yes), or symbols (eg, bullets, check marks)
8 Nontabular Material (Boxes, Sidebars) Does not contain cells Set off from the textReferences should also appear in the reference list and be numbered in order of their appearanceSometimes the box or sidebar is cited in the text (following the citation rules for tables) and other times (eg, in news articles) it is not
9 Boxes Contains words, phrases, or sentences Often in list form To emphasize key points, summarize information, and/or reduce the narrative text
10 Sidebar of sources for further reading Sidebarssupplementary information, including related topics or lists of sources for further readingSidebar from a news story on influenza
11 Organizing Information in Tables Tabulating all collected study data is unnecessary and actually may distract and overwhelm the reader.The length of the table should also be considered.2 or more smaller tablesset in smaller typepublish the table in electronic formin print publications -> up to 9 or 10 columns of data
12 The second table more easily allows the reader to compare the changes over time.
13 Title Column headings Stubs (row headings) Body (data field) Footnotes Table ComponentsTitleColumn headingsStubs (row headings)Body (data field)Footnotes
14 brief, specific, descriptive usually written as a phrase Titlebrief, specific, descriptiveusually written as a phraseDistinguishes the table from other data displays in the articleConvey the topic of the table(not detailed background information or summary of results)Numbered according to the text orderThe word “Table” and the table number are part of the title.Only 1 table in the article -> “Table”The capitalization style -> as article titles
15 Column Headings main categories -> separate columns Each column -> a brief headingIndependent and dependent variablesthe independent variables -> left-hand columnthe dependent variables -> right-hand columnunit of measure -> indicated in the column heading (unless it is given in the table stub)preceded by a commaboldface typeColumn subheadings may be usedComplex headings -> braces, or footnotes
16 All elements in a column are equal (female sex) -> delete the column -> indicate in footnote or table titleNumbers and abbreviations may be relaxed with abbreviations expanded in a footnoteWhen space allows , expansions are preferable to abbreviations.The capitalization style -> as article titles
17 Table Stubs (Row Headings) Left-justifiedUnit of measure ifIt is not included in column headingSome publicationsuse bold stubs or shadingCapitalization:sentences, NOT titlesthe first word should be capitalizedIndentions:Depict hierarchical components of the stubs
18 Cut-in headingsA table divided into parts to enhance clarity2 closely related tables that would be better combinedAbove the table columns(below the column heads)BoldfaceCenteredN0TEBoth column headings and stubs should be consistent in style and presentation between tables in the same article.
19 Capitalization -> Sentences style Field (body)Numerals, text, symbols, or a combinationData arranged logically -> find data point easily. e.g.time order should be used for data collected in sequenceSimilar types of data should be grouped.Numbers that are added or averaged should be placed in the same column.Capitalization -> Sentences styleAvoid blank space (ambiguity) unless an entry in a cell does not contain data.The numeral 0 should be usedEllipsis (...) -> no data available or the category is not applicable for a cellOther designations such as NA, meaning in footnote
20 Sex and age were matching variables, no data appear in those cells
22 Totals Corresponded to values in the text and abstract Explain discrepancies (eg, because of rounding) in a footnote.Discretion in Boldface type for true totals (ie, those that represent sums of values in the table)Do not boldface to emphasize data (eg, significant odds ratios or P values).
23 Alignment of Data Horizontal alignment (across rows) Stub line exceed the width of the stub columnaligned across the first line
24 Vertical alignmentLengthy text -> the flush-left format should be used with an indent for run over lines.
25 Rules and Shading For JAMA and the Archives Journals, tables should be submitted without rules or shading.Many journals add rules and shading, JAMA uses horizontal rules to separate rows of data (Example T8). Other journals may use shading.
26 Footnotes Order -> placement in the table The letter for entire table -> after the table title1 or 2 columns or rows -> after the column heading(s) or stub(s)A single or several individual entries -> at the end of each entrylisted at the bottom , each on its own lineTo save space -> 2 columns
27 Superscript lowercase letters in alphabetical order (a-z) Font size -> large enough to see clearly without appearing to be part of the actual dataUsing symbols (JAMA and the Archives Journals) -> are limited in number (*,† , etc)Care -> superscript footnote letters are distinguished clearly from superscripts used for data elements (Blood Groups, Platelet Antigens) -> symbols may avoid confusionPhrases or complete sentencesOperational signs (P = .01) is considered a complete sentence.Footnote letters before the textFollowed by a space for clarity
28 JAMA and the Archives Journals -> abbreviations and units of measure conversion first AND Set off with an introductory word or phrase instead of a letterAbbreviations -> in alphabetical orderUnits of measure and applicable conversion factors -> separate footnote
29 2. the letter (eg. 427 Patients5,b ). Several tables share long footnote -> refer to the first table (eg. Study acronyms are explained in the first footnote to Table 1. )The reader may be referred to a relevant discussion in the text. (eg. See the “Statistical Analysis” section for a description of this procedure.)N0TE 1: References -> numbered as the textN0TE 2: References at the end of table titles are ambiguous. Instead, a footnote should be added with an explanation that it wasAdapted from ...Reproduced with permission from ...Data were derived from ...Both footnote letter and reference number:1. the reference number,2. the letter (eg. 427 Patients5,b ).
30 Some examples of footnotes To expand abbreviations: Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.To designate reporting of numerical values: a Scores are based on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 indicating least severe and 10, most severe.To provide information on statistical analyses or experimental methods: b Adjusted for age, smoking status, and body mass index.To explain a discrepancy in numerical data: a Because of rounding, percentages may not total 100.To cite references for information used in the table. References are given as in the text and are designated with superscript arabic numbers: c Classified using International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care.To acknowledge that data in the table are taken from or based on data from another source: a Data from the US Census Bureau.To acknowledge credit for reproduction of a table. If the table has been reprinted or modified with permission from another source, credit should be given in a footnote: a Adapted with permission from the American Medical Association.