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Visual Presentation of Data Azam Raufee, Kowsar Medical Institute,

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Presentation on theme: "Visual Presentation of Data Azam Raufee, Kowsar Medical Institute,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Visual Presentation of Data Azam Raufee, Kowsar Medical Institute,

2 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Visual Presentation of Data Tables Figures Nontabular Material

3 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Tables Large amounts of detailed quantitative information in a smaller space Item-to-item comparisons Many quantitative values simultaneously Individual data values precisely Complex relationships in data

4 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Essential component - > present detailed information effectively and in ways that text alone cannot Study results -> Summarize, organize, and condense complex or detailed data NOTE A proper table -> doesnt require explanation

5 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Present numerical data As referred to in the text Note: Table Position

6 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Tabulation (a brief, in-text table) * placed directly in the text * Unnecessary titles, numbering, and rules requires the text to explain meaning 1 or 2 columns boldface column headings

7 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Matrix (a tabular structure ) To depict relationships among columns and rows -> uses numbers, short words (eg, no, yes), or symbols (eg, bullets, check marks)

8 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Nontabular Material (Boxes, Sidebars) Does not contain cells Set off from the text References should also appear in the reference list and be numbered in order of their appearance Sometimes the box or sidebar is cited in the text (following the citation rules for tables) and other times (eg, in news articles) it is not

9 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Boxes Contains words, phrases, or sentences Often in list form To emphasize key points, summarize information, and/or reduce the narrative text

10 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Sidebars supplementary information, including related topics or lists of sources for further reading Sidebar of sources for further reading Sidebar from a news story on influenza

11 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Organizing Information in Tables * Tabulating all collected study data is unnecessary and actually may distract and overwhelm the reader. * The length of the table should also be considered. 2 or more smaller tables set in smaller type publish the table in electronic form in print publications -> up to 9 or 10 columns of data

12 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. The second table more easily allows the reader to compare the changes over time.

13 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Table Components Title Column headings Stubs (row headings) Body (data field) Footnotes

14 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Title brief, specific, descriptive usually written as a phrase Distinguishes the table from other data displays in the article Convey the topic of the table (not detailed background information or summary of results) Numbered according to the text order The word Table and the table number are part of the title. Only 1 table in the article -> Table The capitalization style -> as article titles

15 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Column Headings main categories -> separate columns Each column -> a brief heading Independent and dependent variables the independent variables -> left-hand column the dependent variables -> right-hand column unit of measure -> indicated in the column heading (unless it is given in the table stub) preceded by a comma boldface type Column subheadings may be used Complex headings -> braces, or footnotes

16 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. All elements in a column are equal (female sex) -> delete the column -> indicate in footnote or table title Numbers and abbreviations may be relaxed with abbreviations expanded in a footnote When space allows, expansions are preferable to abbreviations. The capitalization style -> as article titles

17 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Unit of measure if It is not included in column heading Capitalization: sentences, NOT titles the first word should be capitalized Left-justified Indentions: Depict hierarchical components of the stubs Some publications use bold stubs or shading Table Stubs (Row Headings)

18 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Cut-in headings A table divided into parts to enhance clarity 2 closely related tables that would be better combined Above the table columns (below the column heads) Boldface Centered N0TE Both column headings and stubs should be consistent in style and presentation between tables in the same article.

19 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Field (body) Numerals, text, symbols, or a combination Data arranged logically -> find data point easily. e.g. time order should be used for data collected in sequence Similar types of data should be grouped. Numbers that are added or averaged should be placed in the same column. Capitalization -> Sentences style Avoid blank space (ambiguity) unless an entry in a cell does not contain data. – The numeral 0 should be used – Ellipsis (...) -> no data available or the category is not applicable for a cell – Other designations such as NA, meaning in footnote

20 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Sex and age were matching variables, no data appear in those cells

21 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp.

22 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Totals Corresponded to values in the text and abstract Explain discrepancies (eg, because of rounding) in a footnote. Discretion in Boldface type for true totals (ie, those that represent sums of values in the table) Do not boldface to emphasize data (eg, significant odds ratios or P values).

23 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Alignment of Data Stub line exceed the width of the stub column aligned across the first line Horizontal alignment (across rows)

24 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Vertical alignment Lengthy text -> the flush-left format should be used with an indent for run over lines.

25 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Rules and Shading For JAMA and the Archives Journals, tables should be submitted without rules or shading. Many journals add rules and shading, JAMA uses horizontal rules to separate rows of data (Example T8). Other journals may use shading.T8

26 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Footnotes Order -> placement in the table The letter for entire table -> after the table title 1 or 2 columns or rows -> after the column heading(s) or stub(s) A single or several individual entries -> at the end of each entry listed at the bottom, each on its own line To save space -> 2 columns

27 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Superscript lowercase letters in alphabetical order (a-z) Font size -> large enough to see clearly without appearing to be part of the actual data Using symbols (JAMA and the Archives Journals) -> are limited in number (*,, etc) Care -> superscript footnote letters are distinguished clearly from superscripts used for data elements (Blood Groups, Platelet Antigens) -> symbols may avoid confusion Phrases or complete sentences Operational signs (P =.01) is considered a complete sentence. Footnote letters before the text Followed by a space for clarity

28 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. JAMA and the Archives Journals -> abbreviations and units of measure conversion first AND Set off with an introductory word or phrase instead of a letter Abbreviations -> in alphabetical order Units of measure and applicable conversion factors -> separate footnote

29 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Several tables share long footnote -> refer to the first table (eg. Study acronyms are explained in the first footnote to Table 1. ) The reader may be referred to a relevant discussion in the text. (eg. See the Statistical Analysis section for a description of this procedure.) N0TE 1: References -> numbered as the text N0TE 2: References at the end of table titles are ambiguous. Instead, a footnote should be added with an explanation that it was Adapted from... Reproduced with permission from... Data were derived from... Both footnote letter and reference number: 1. the reference number, 2. the letter (eg. 427 Patients 5,b ).

30 Azam RaufeeKowsar Corp. Some examples of footnotes To expand abbreviations: Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio. To designate reporting of numerical values: a Scores are based on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 indicating least severe and 10, most severe. To provide information on statistical analyses or experimental methods: b Adjusted for age, smoking status, and body mass index. To explain a discrepancy in numerical data: a Because of rounding, percentages may not total 100. To cite references for information used in the table. References are given as in the text and are designated with superscript arabic numbers: c Classified using International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care. To acknowledge that data in the table are taken from or based on data from another source: a Data from the US Census Bureau. To acknowledge credit for reproduction of a table. If the table has been reprinted or modified with permission from another source, credit should be given in a footnote: a Adapted with permission from the American Medical Association.

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