Presentation on theme: "Zach Lax, Rachel Bosler, Jacob Andrew, Addie Breese, Kennedy Madgett, & Austin Davis Chapter 3 - A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce."— Presentation transcript:
Zach Lax, Rachel Bosler, Jacob Andrew, Addie Breese, Kennedy Madgett, & Austin Davis Chapter 3 - A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce
Summary Stephen continues to pursue his sinful desires. He revisits thoughts about religion and realizes that because he has committed one of the seven deadly sins, lust, he has committed all of them. He becomes angry and displeased with everything on Earth. Stephen is still fascinated by the Virgin Mary, which leads him to question the relation between religious importance and sexual desires. He then goes on a school religious retreat in honor of St. Francis Xavier. The retreat is lead by Father Arnall, allowing Stephen to remember his innocent childish days. Father Arnall changes tones as he begins to lecture on the four main questions of Catholicism: heaven, hell, death, and judgement. Stephen begins to feel disgusting. Father Arnell talks in depth of death and judgement, in his religious rant on the apocalypse. By the end of Arnalls graphic sermon, Stephen is extremely frightened and knows his sins are crucial to Gods ultimate decision for him.
summary (part 2) He wants to feel closer to the Virgin Mary and God, but feels that he has been too sinful. The next day Stephen is horrified by the gruesome description of hell. Father Arnell yells about devils and sinners and a horrible eternity spent in hell. Stephen wont confess at his school. The next lesson is on the spiritual tortures of hell. Arnall describes eternity with a metaphor about carrying sand up a mountain. Stephen has a vivid nightmare about the hell that potentially awaits him. He throws up, and then prays to God while he cries. He goes to a chapel in Dublin and confesses all of his sins. Afterwards he feels that he has changed and that his sins have been washed away. The next morning he goes to the schools chapel and believes he is starting over.
Sensory Descriptions The sensory images and symbols from the previous chapters are expanded in this chapter as well, however the majority of the chapter focuses on Stephens sensory progression. At first his senses are compared to a predatory beast, as Stephen has been reduced to one following his sin. He is stalking the prostitutes at the beginning of the chapter and feels they are his prey. However after the first lecture by the speaker, Stephen realizes the death of his humanity and the cold, lifelessness of his senses. They become overwhelmed and are juxtaposed in unusual ways. only to hear and feel the more deeply his own damnation (114) He felt the deathchill touch the extremities and creep upward towards the heart, the film of death covering the eyes. (119) Once he has confessed his sins, he comes to life once more and finds peace. I suspect that his senses will be more vivid and positive the next chapter following his progression.
Religious Imagery/Motifs Throughout the chapter although God is described as the forgiving savior of man, Stephen is fascinated with the Virgin Mary (the mother of Jesus) and even asks her to save him from the guilt of death (132). His fascination is revealed when he murmurs to the statue of her and thinks about the lewd kisses he shared upon the same lips. Mary represents a sort of ideal woman that the prostitutes will never be. (112-113) Throughout this chapter there are numerous references and near quotes from the final chapter of the Bible, Revelation. Specifically mentioned are: the end of the earth, the second coming of christ, and the subsequent judgement day announced by the angel Michael. The angel Michael carries a trumpet which is referenced and used as a symbol that guides Stephen to his epiphany. But the blast of the angels trumpet had driven him forth from the darkness of sin into the light. (122)
Continued The rain on page 124 is both a biblical symbol and a biblical allusion. As a symbol, the rain covers the earth and cleanses it. Rain is cleansing and refers to a baptism of Stephens spirit as the waters of baptism cleanse the soul (129). However forty days and forty nights the rain would fall till the water covered the face of the earth (124) is a referenced to the biblical story of Moses or the great flood. Not long after the creation of earth, God was so displeased with humanity that he sent a flood to end all life (except for a man named Noah, his family, and two of every animal). Like Noah, Stephen will be renewed and start over after his spiritual cleansing. The biblical story of Adam and Eve is a recurring motif which is juxtaposed to the story of Lucifer. Both fell from grace in the eyes of God. Lucifer for pride, Adam and Eve for lust.
Continues There is graphic sensory imagery used to describe hell and the torments that occur there. Every Sense of the flesh is tortured and every faculty of the soul therewith the eyes with impenetrable utter darkness, the nose with noisome odours, the ears with yells and howls and execration, the taste with foul matter, leprous corruption, nameless suffocating filth, the touch with redhot goads and spikes, with cruel tongues and flame. (129)
Avoidance of Guilt/Punishment Stephen tries to avoid punishment many times this chapter. His days and works and thoughts could make no atonement for him, the fountains of sanctifying grace having ceased to refresh his soul. At most, by an alms given to a beggar whose blessing he fled from, he might hope wearily to win for himself some measure of actual grace (111). At the beginning of chapter 3, Stephen gives a small donation to a beggar to win for himself some measure of actual grace, and to avoid a complete deterioration of his soul. Donating money made Stephen feel good about himself, and he avoided guilt. This reflects his desire to avoid negative feelings and escape his growing problems.
Avoidance (cont.) The thought slid like a cold shining rapier into his tender flesh: confession. But not there in the chapel of the college. He would confess all, every sin of deed and thought, sincerely; but not there among his school companions. Far away from there in some dark place he would murmur out his own shame; and he besought God humbly not to be offended with him if he did not dare to confess in the college chapel and in utter objection of spirit he craved forgiveness mutely of the boyish hearts about him (133). Stephen did not want to confess his sins amongst his classmates in the college because he was afraid of the possible consequences. He feared there judgement and condemnation for his sins. Instead he wants to confess in a chapel far away so he cant be judged or punished by those close to him. Although he is moving forward by confessing his sins, Stephen is still not ready to admit his actions to those around him.
Avoidance (cont.) When the preacher was preaching about Hell, his vivid descriptions penetrated Stephens mind and scared him. The preachers words made Stephen realize he did not want to be punished for what he had done and spend an eternity in hell. WHile it may seem like he is moving forward, Stephens whole confession can be seen as a way to escape the punishment of eternal hell.
Stephens Fall Stephens fall from grace boils down to his initial sin, which sparks the rest of his sins. His lust and desire caused him to abandon care and live recklessly, completely abandoning his religious upbringing. He feels pride in not praying anymore and more pride in sinning. His fall is emphasized when he walks by the church and criticizes the congregation for being dull and sickly, believing himself to be alive and well in contrast. However as the preacher speaks, he realizes it is he who is dead and helpless, not those in church.
Indications of Climax The climax of the chapter is indicated and foreshadowed by the consistent use of repetition found in the preachers speech and the change in Stephens religious views. His newfound need to atone for his sins symbolizes a huge turning point in the story. He is scared into this religion by the threat of Hell but regardless, it has changed his whole perspective.
The Pacing of Chapter 3 The pacing of chapter three is a very important element to the development of the chapter and its place in the center of the novel. At the beginning, the pace is slow as Stephen meanders about town, but then when the rector starts to preach about sin and hell, the pace becomes more intense. Between each sermon, the ipace drops as Stephen reflects on his life. This causes the chapter to have frequent breaks between intense moments and inner monologue. At the end, the pace intensifies before suddenly becomes slow, reflecting the peace Stephen has found.
The Function of Repetition The function of repetition is very obvious in chapter 3, and comes in different forms, particularly in Father Arnalls sermons, and when Stephen asks for forgiveness. Repetition allows thoughts to be further explored and emphasized, while obtaining a deeper meaning in the message. God and the blessed Virgin were too far from him: God was too great and stern and the Blessed Virgin too pure and holy(Joyce 102). But our earthly fire was created by God for the benefit of man... Our earthly fire again, no matter how fierce or widespread it may be…(Joyce 106).
Repetition continues Why did you sin? Why did you lend an ear to the temptings of friends? Why did you turn aside from your pious practices and good works? Why did you not shun the occasions of sin? Why did you not leave that evil companion?...(Joyce 108)....ever to suffer, never to enjoy; ever to be damned, never to be saved; ever, never; ever, never(Joyce 116). Stephens prayer: O my God! O my God! I am heartily sorry- I am heartily sorry- for having offended Thee- for having offended Thee- and I detest my sins- and I detest my sins- above every evil- above every evil…(Joyce 118).
Mirror Images Chants are used in all three chapters. Examples include: pull out his eyes apologize (pg. 4) Admit. -No. -Admit. -No. (pg. 71) O my God!- O my God! (pg. 118) The chants are used to try and force a belief or action upon Stephen. He is told he should not want to marry a protestant, not like Lord Byron, and not like sinning.
Mirror Images continued Stephen also feels sick in the first chapter, wishing he could go home, and the image of his sickness is mirrored at the beginning of chapter 3 when he feels sick from his gluttony. The difference is that the first sickness is caused by others, and the second is caused by himself, which shows he is now causing himself pain.
Stephens Epiphany Stephens Epiphany is triggered by the building of multiple events at his school retreat. Over the course of the retreat, Father Arnall delivers sermons consisting of death, judgement, and hell. These sermons seem to Stephen, that they are meant entirely for him, and end up scaring him straight. On the third night of the retreat, Father Arnall informs the boys that they can reach heaven if they ask God for His forgiveness and stop sinning altogether. The moment where Stephen has his epiphany is shown below: He desired with all his will not to hear or see. He desired till his frame shook under the strain of his desire and until the senses of his soul closed. They closed for an instant and then opened. He saw. (144) Here, Stephen has just recently recounted his sinful life, and is fighting between his current life, or a life with God. Father Arnalls sermons have convinced Stephen that he must pursue a pure and sinless life with God. The Epiphany: Stephen realizes that his sinful lifestyle is a ticket for eternity in Hell, and that he must ask God for forgiveness and live a life free of sin.
Moment of Stasis The preacher took a chainless watch from a pocket within his soutane and, having considered its dial for a moment in silence, placed it silently before him on the table. (124) The moment of stasis during Chapter 3 occurs right before the preacher gives a sermon on Adam and Eve. Before this moment, Joyce describes the scene with other silent adjectives. He depicts a scene of a mass flood. The flood symbolizes the cleansing of Stephen, which is followed with the moment of temporary stasis above. Following the stasis, the preacher recounts the story of Adam and Eve, which symbolizes a new beginning, and foreshadows Stephens epiphany later on in the chapter. It would rain forever noiselessly. All life would be choked off, noiselessly: birds, men elephants, pigs, children: noiselessly floating corpses amid the litter of the wreckage of the world.
Dantes Inferno Inferno is Italian for Hell. Dante Alighieris 14th century epic poem Divine Comedy is considered the greatest literary work composed in the Italian language. The poem is an allegory telling of the journey of Dante through hell, guided by the Roman poet Virgil. Inhabitants of the inferno have no hope of salvation, release, improvement, or escape from their punishments. They cannot go back in time as if their sins did not happen, similar to how even though Stephens sins have been forgiven, he cannot go back in time to change them. The Divine Comedy represents the journey of the soul towards God, with the Inferno describing the recognition and rejection of sin. (Sound familiar?) This deals with themes of sin, salvation, and redemption. (Just like Ch. 3) It is ironic how Stephen calls his aunt Dante, her being a nationalist. Dante Alighieri was an Italian who wrote about a Roman leading Dante away from hell.
Thomas Aquinas 7 deadly sins Saint Thomas Aquinas spoke about what he called the 7 mortal vices, now known as the 7 deadly sins. He who offends against one commandment becomes guilty of all (114). Pride- unrestrained view of self worth. Often considered the worst as it leads to other sins. Greed- over desire for goods or power. Gluttony- overindulgence of food or drink. Lust- impure desires and actions. Sloth- laziness. Envy- desire for others goods or good fortune. Anger/Wrath- unwarranted anger.
7 Deadly Sins of Stephen stuff it into you, his belly counselled him (110) -greed Pride in his own sin (112) -pride Contempt of his fellows(112) -anger So he had sunk to the state of a beast that licks his own chaps after meat (119) -gluttony From the evil seed of lust all other deadly sins had sprung forth: pride in himself and contempt of others, covetousness in using money for the purchase of unlawful pleasure, envy of those whose vices he could not reach to and the calumnious murmuring against the pious, gluttonous enjoyment of food, the dull glowering anger amid which he brooded upon his longing, the swamp of spiritual and bodily sloth in which his whole being had sunk. (114) While there are specific examples of Stephen committing all the deadly sins, his greatest downfall is his lust. Aquinas saw pride to be the deadliest sin, but here Joyce is suggesting that lust began all sin on earth. He brings up the motif of Adam and Eve, whose lust and following sin got them removed from the Garden of Eden. This was the first sin, and the other six follow soon after. Like Adam and Eve, Stephen falls victim to his temptation and the rest of his sins are a result of his initial lust in chapter two.
Miltons Paradise Lost Paradise Lost is a series of twelve books that contain a continuation of a poem written by John Milton in 1674 about the biblical story of Adam and Eve. The poem describes the biblical story of the Fall of Man and the first sin. Sin entered the world when Eve was tempted by Satan in the form of a serpent and offered fruit which God had forbidden her and Adam from eating. Consequentially, this led to a loss of paradise and the two were banished from the Garden of Eden and sent to live in sin and disgrace.
The story of Jonah The biblical story of Jonah is a tale of repentance. God spoke to Jonah and told him to go to the city of Nineveh and preach repentance (as Nineveh was known for wickedness and sin). However Jonah did not find this command appealing, and instead he fled and boarded a ship headed the opposite way. God was displeased, and sent a terrible storm. Jonah realized that the storm was sent for him, so he begged the innocent sailors to throw him overboard in promise that the storm would stop. They were hesitant, but eventually conceded. Once overboard, Jonah was saved from drowning and instead swallowed by a whale where he spent three days and three nights repenting to God and promising to go to Nineveh. After the three days the whale threw Jonah up on land near Nineveh and he went to preach to the people, who then repented. However in an ironic twist this story ends with Jonah complaining to God about being too hot (even after God sent him a tree for shade), and not caring about what happened to the people of Nineveh.
Christs Descent into Hell Jesus Christ was crucified by the Romans after being betrayed by one of his disciples. Although Christ was innocent and free from sin, he carried the sins of the world on his shoulders and so following his death on the cross, he descended into hell for three days to pay for mankinds sin. After three days he was resurrected and returned to earth, and shortly after ascended back into heaven.
The Function of Chapter Three in Joyces Chiasmic Structure J oyces Chiasmic structure hinges on chapter three. According to the triangle, chapter three is the epicenter and highpoint of the book. At the moment of stasis, the book essentially starts over again structurally. In the beginning of the book Stephen is pure and innocent, eventually losing his innocence, feeling guilt and then cleansing. This is, of course, a parallel between the story of Noahs ark and the cycle of our world. The rest of the book now begs the question as to whether or not Stephen is changed, or if he still has the sins within him. This falling action will presumably be seen in chapters 4 and 5.
Chiasmus continued Additionally, we can begin to see Chiasmus in Stephens lines of thinking from the beginning of the book to now. In the beginning he is looking outward at the world: Stephen Dedalus Class of Elements Clongowes Wood College Sallins County Kildare Ireland Europe The World The Universe (pg. 12) Now, he is looking inward to himself in the opposite, yet symmetrical manner. He looks at his very soul and the sins he has committed. This chiasmic scale is crucial in evaluating Stephens character.
Question 1 What are the seven deadly sins and which one weighs on Stephen the most?
Answer 1 Gluttony, Envy, Lust, Sloth, Wrath, Pride, Greed Stephen is most affected by lust, his clearest indication of loss of innocence.
Question 2 What is the significance of the retreat?
Answer 2 The retreat surrounds Stephen with the religion he has betrayed and forces concepts of hellfire and death into his psyche. It eventually drives Stephen to go to his confession.
Question 3 The arts and literature are central to Stephen in earlier chapters. (Count of Monte Cristo and Lord Byron) What literature is in chapter three, and what significance does it have in the book?
Answer 3 Chapter three is different from the other chapters in that The Bible and other religious texts are the only piece of literature explicitly engaged. This forces Stephen to focus solely on his sins, rather than the adventure and exploration provided by The Count of Monte Cristo, or the individualism provided by Lord Byrons poems.
Question 4 Do you think Stephens confession to his Priest changed him? Support with evidence.