Presentation on theme: "------Consideration on Sustainable Development of Planning and Construction for Chinese Eco Cities Prof./Dr. YANG Guiqing, WANG Zhen, ZHOU Mimi Tongji."— Presentation transcript:
------Consideration on Sustainable Development of Planning and Construction for Chinese Eco Cities Prof./Dr. YANG Guiqing, WANG Zhen, ZHOU Mimi Tongji University, Shanghai, P.R.China Eco City: From Technical Eco to Social Eco
Contents 1 Back ground: the expectation of transformation development and constructing eco-city for Chinas current urbanization period 2 Brief introduction on planning and construction of Chinese current Eco City 3 Analysis of two different types eco-city construction practice cases eco city, transformation development, social eco, sustainable development, China 4 Further considerations on current Chinese Eco City construction Key words
1.Back ground: the expectation of transformation development and constructing Eco city for Chinese current urbanization period 1.1 The concept of Eco-city The United Nation MAB(Mankind And Biosphere) Plan has a clear definition on Eco city. It points out that an eco city should create a kind of best environment for mankind activities, to stimulate creation and productivity, to afford high level living condition and method, which combine technology and nature, not only in the field of natural eco, but also in social psychology.
1.1 The concept of Eco-city Beginning from opposing environmental pollution and pursuing better natural environment, the content of eco-city concept has explored deep and wide, along with development of science and technology and social and cultural recognition. By summarizing academic research from 1980, the Eco-city can be regarded as the harmonious of economic, social, environmental and cultural integration, is an intergrowth structure among nature, urban and mankind.
1.2 The expectation of constructing Eco City for Chinas current urbanization Todays Chinese urbanization is in a rapid process. In 2012, the rate of Chinese urbanization is reaching about 52%. Looking back past 30 years, from 17.9% in the year of 1978 when was the beginning of Chinese Open Policy, it has been about 1% growth each year. In the past 30 years, Chinese urbanization has been growing about 30%, creating about 10 million people move to urban, that means the total urban population increased about 0.3 billion during past 30 years. 1.Back ground: the expectation of transformation development and constructing Eco city for Chinese current urbanization period Urbanization Rate(%) Britain German United States Japan China
1.2 The expectation of constructing Eco City for Chinas current urbanization If keeping this speed, assuming that the urbanization rate will reach to 80%, then, new 30% urbanization rate will create another 0.4 billion people. Urbanization Rate(%) Year Britain German United States Japan China Fig.2 The comparison of speed slope between China and developed countries on the complete of 50% urbanization level
Urbanization Rate(%) Britain German United States Japan China Fig.1 The comparison of urbanization rate between China and developed countries by overall curves 1.2 The expectation of constructing Eco City for Chinas current urbanization Here, we not only pay attention to the urbanization rate, but also more care about the time period from 20% to 50%. From figure, we could see that UK used 88 years from 33% to 50%; Germany used 98 years, American used 44 years, Japan used 43 years. By comparing the time for the developed countries to reach the 50% urbanization rate, China has just used 30 years from 20.8% in 1982 to 50% around 2012!
Table.1 The comparison of speed slope between China and developed countries on the complete of 50% urbanization level During this period, Chinese urbanization slope is 1.02, that is 3.2 times higher than Germany, and 1.6 times higher than American, and 1.4 times higher than Japan. 1.2 The expectation of constructing Eco City for Chinas current urbanization Urbanizatio n Rate(%) Year Britain German United States Japan China
1.2 The expectation of constructing Eco City for Chinas current urbanization Thus, the time of growth rate of Chinese urbanization during this period, is much shorter than developed countries. This is not only the inevitable reflection of accumulation of Chinese industrialization, but also the inevitable result of liberation of rural productivity after Chinese Open Policy, and also the achievement of Top-down development policy of improving urbanization. However, such high speed and such short period, whether it could bring negative influences as well as advantages?
About 0.3 billion rural labor force moving to various sizes cities in such a short period, cause huge and various pressures to social administrative for relevant cities. These pressures include: shortage of affordable housing, shortage of drinking water and other facilities supply, difficulties accessibility to schools, medical care, and other basic need of daily public services. These pressures also cause the shortage of spatial environment supply, thus urban life quality is heavily influenced and decreased. 1.2 The expectation of constructing Eco City for Chinas current urbanization
At meantime, spatial environmental conflicts also cause relevant social issues and conflicts, such as integration of living culture, identity recognition, large gap between the rich and the poor, and safety issue. Due to rapid urbanization process and fast accumulation of urban population, the contradiction and conflicts among various social stakeholders is hard to be digested and solved, thus the social eco balance is broken, but new social order and balance have not been set up in time, so, social contradiction may cause serious social conflicts. 1.2 The expectation of constructing Eco City for Chinas current urbanization
the western developed countries has experienced a relatively long time to accomplish 50% urbanization rate, thus they could have more chances to exposure and overcome urban social contradictions and conflicts. Some western developed countries experience 200 years or even more to reach the 80% urbanization rate, but China will only spend 60 years. This situation will undoubtedly cause huge pressure to Chinas urban planning, construction and governance. Urbanization Rate(%) Year Britain German United States Japan China Fig.2 The comparison of speed slope between China and developed countries on the complete of 50% urbanization level 1.2 The expectation of constructing Eco City for Chinas current urbanization
Chinas rapid urbanization development brings about fast increase of speed and scale of Chinese urban construction, which cause big influence to various resources (such as land use) and ecological environment. Urban quality is seriously threatened by resources waste and environment pollutions. Therefore, Chinese current urbanization has great expectation for transformation development and eco city construction. 1.2 The expectation of constructing Eco City for Chinas current urbanization
2. Overview of Planning and Construction for Chinese Eco Cities 2.1 The Stages of Chinese Eco-city Development (1) Preparation stage( ) The development of Chinese eco-city in general can be divided into three stages: Chinese eco- city construction started from the eco-city construction goal which was proposed in Yichun Jiangxi Province After that, led by the National Garden City, China Habitat Environment Prize, Pilot Ecological Garden City and other relevant title of honor or campaign, many cities carried out the construction practices in order to better around the city space, the regulation of environmental health, etc. Although, there is not the systematic eco-city construction index in this stage, it provides the basis of theory and practice aspects and preparation for the following eco- city construction.
Table.2 The list of Chinese mainland currently approved eco-cities scale part of the table Chinas Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Construction (MHURC) comprehensively conducted eco- city pilot work covering a wider range by the international cooperation and a provincial, ministry, a cooperation agreement. These cities include "Sino- Singapore Tianjin Eco-city", "Tangshan bay eco-city", "Wuxi Taihu New City, etc. (urban area). (2) Experimental stage( )
In order to further promote the results of "eco-city pilot " work, MOHURD Put forward the "interim measures for low carbon ecological pilot cities and towns to declare" which set five basic conditions for the pilot low-carbon eco-city. In September 2012, in order to further strengthen the support of low-carbon ecological pilot cities and towns, MHURC carried on the integration for the original two aspects work: "low-carbon pilot town" and "green ecological city". (3) Demonstration stage( present) Table.2 The list of Chinese mainland currently approved eco-cities scale part of the table
The development of Chinese eco-city in general can be divided into three stages Table.2 The list of Chinese mainland currently approved eco-cities scale The Geographical distribution of Chinese mainland currently approved eco-cities
The plan put forward to determine about 100 cities new districts and each one is not less than 1.5 square kilometers which is in accordance with the standards of "green eco-city" and adjust measures to local conditions for planning and construction in the next five years. At the same time focus on existing building energy efficiency renovation, promote the ecological renovation of the old town. At the national level to establish the economic incentive policies, Set the benchmark for subsidy funds of 50 million Yuan depending on the level of "green eco-city" planning and construction, the construction scale and level of green construction, capacity of building. In March 2013, MHURC issued the Twelfth Five-year" National Green Building and Green Ecological City Development Plan. The overall goal of the development plan is: Through 5 years, Basic form the economic incentive mechanism of the "green eco- city" development, gradually improve technical standard system, constantly improve the innovation ability, preliminary form industrial scale and demonstration role, basic implement the target of the scientific transformation of urban and rural construction mode.
2. Overview of Planning and Construction for Chinese Eco Cities 2.2 Applying requirement of and evaluation standards of Chinas eco-city construction In order to guide experimental eco-city construction, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Rural Construction (MHURC) in China released relevant acts in June 2011, named as Requirements for Applying Low Carbon Eco Experimental City (Town) (by MHURC), pointing out 5 basic conditions and necessary preparations. Table.3 The relevant requirements of China low-carbon declaration pilot eco-city (town) list (2011)
2. Overview of Planning and Construction for Chinese Eco Cities 2.2 Applying requirement of and evaluation standards of Chinas eco-city construction As important contents for eco-city construction, Green, Low Carbon become key themes nowadays in China and relevant evaluation indexes of construction have been announced. In September 2011, MHURC together with other Ministries released Evaluation Index on Green and Low Carbon Construction for key Small Towns.
Table.4 The list of China "Green carbon focus of small towns Evaluation(Trail)"(2011) This index includes 7 parts, which expressed as: social and economic development standards planning and construction and management standards compact of land use preservation of resources environment decrease of waste, energy saving, facilities and parks public services level historical and cultural preservation This 7 parts include 35 items, 62 indexes
2. Overview of Planning and Construction for Chinese Eco Cities 2.3 The overall features of Chinas current eco-city construction (1) the number of eco-city construction practice is increasing By the end of 2012, there are about 230 cities (out of 287 big size cities) have announced their eco-city construction goal (Note 4), which has 80% in number. During , there were approximately 10 cities to be in the name list; after 2003, there were about cities add. It reflects that both central government and local governments pay more attention to eco-city construction from planning and construction policy.
(2) the types of construction eco-city practices are various The main type of construction eco-city in experimental period is new built model. For example, Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city, is a mainly new built city from planning to construction, guided by the goal of low carbon and eco, base on reformation of vacant salty land. It has advantages of less limitation of land use, large development opportunities and easy for implementation. However, it has disadvantages of large amount investment and high cost of construction. Furthermore, during its construction process, eco- city will also be questioned by new residents and relevant employment pressure. The eco effectiveness will also be challenged by time.
Another type of eco-city construction is reconstructing exiting city with the eco idea. It should base on the current land use and characteristics of the exiting built urban environment. Through ways of eco technology, such as focus on land use transformation and retreatment, energy saving program, environmental adjustment, etc. For example, the cities of Yanqing and Miyun in Beijing region, they implement new energy program, such as Sola energy, bio intelligent energy, and wind electricity technology, according their local climate and need, supported by relevant national policy both in technology application and revenue budget. (2) the types of construction eco-city practices are various
It shows some good practices in the fields of eco- recovery, treatment of rubbish, circle industries. However, some disadvantages show that the use right of land, right of building properties, and distributions of benefits after eco renewal, are very complicated, thus add difficulties in process. Eco-city also has its varieties in terms of different sizes. Some eco-cities cover all urban area, but some of them just cover in a certain urban district. (2) the types of construction eco-city practices are various
(3) the standard of construction needs to be improved By comparing the eco-city construction standards of developed countries in the world, Chinas current eco-city construction is still in the start period. This is because of its developing stage of urbanization. According to top-down model, the national GDP target will stimulate local governments to reach their sub targets following traditional development model, which heavily rely on expanding land use and cost of natural resources, less pay attention to eco environment treatment and urban social diversity. In reality, local governments still feel pressure to have a big investment to promote transformation in economic growth. Therefore, from a big view of point, some eco-cities are not real eco but only an eco brand in China, the standards of building eco-city varieties from region to region, from city to city, and need to be improved.
3. Analysis of two typical types of eco-city construction cases 3.1 Overall planning and construction of ecological new town Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city" The Location Location and Development Orientation "Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city" is located in Tianjin Seaside New Area of the northern Chinese city, 45 km away from Tianjin City center, 150 km away from Beijing, Total land area of approximately 30 square kilometers, planning of resident population of 350,000.
Development Orientation technology innovation platform such as, ecological and environmental protection, energy conservation and emission reduction, green building; The national exchange exhibition center for environmental education research and development, ecological industry base; the window for participating in the international ecological environment development; Ecological livable demonstration new town. It was jointly initiated planning and construction by China and Singapore governments in The top- down comprehensive overall planning and construction of eco-city belongs to the pioneer practice in China. It is designed to cope with global climate change, saving energy resources, protect the ecological environment.
Fig.5 The overall Planning The structure of land use planning and construction In "Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city" overall planning of land use, Residential land accounts for 40% of the total construction land, Land for industry accounted for 10%, Commercial land accounted for 3%, Public green land accounted for 18%. Per capita construction land is no more than 75 square meters which is below the national standard 100 / per capita. By 2013, "Sino-Singapore Tianjin eco-city" finished 30 square kilometers land appropriation and land leveling, and initial region from 3 square kilometers to expand in size to 8 square kilometers.
Fig.5 The overall Planning The structure of land use planning and construction A green traffic system named as Green Corridor has been planned and being built that is mainly include Light rail, clean energy to public transport. The project has been constructing total area of 6.09 million square meters. An area of 2.07 million square meters has been finished which meet all the green building standards and become the nation's first green ecological demonstration city.
Ecological restoration and industrial development In the process of construction, "Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city" accumulatively saline-alkali land greening area of more than 300 square meters, By industrial pollution for 40 years of 3 square kilometers sewage reservoir into "clean lake". Constructed five industrial park, such as the National Animation Park, The National Park 3D film, Information park, Science and Technology Park. Total registered enterprises are more than thousand, Investment of more than 900 one hundred million RMB Yuan. Preliminary formed five industrial clusters: the cultural creativity, information technology, energy conservation and environmental protection, research and development of science and technology, modern service. According to the plan.
The explore of eco-city index system established China's more complete and measurable index system of eco-city in the process of planning and construction. The index system is divided into three major categories, eight index layer, 22 measures of controlling and four leading indicators. Leading indicators aim to promote regional integration by natural ecological coordination, regional policy coordination, social culture coordination and regional economic coordination. The controlling indicators, five indicators are the main aspects for eco-city construction, which are mainly related to the human settlements.
3.2 Planning and building ecological demonstration zones in the city center area Eco Tai Lake city in Wuxi Location and Positioning Fig.7 The location of Eco Tai Lake city in Wuxi 3. Analysis of two typical types of eco-city construction cases Eco Tai Lake city in Wuxi is an integral part of Wuxi Tai Lake New City. It is located south of the city of Wuxi, the southward expansion of Wuxi, the major spatial carrier of urban lake construction, and the new city center of Wuxi. The total Tai Lake New City planned area is 150 square kilometers, of which Eco Tai Lake city in Wuxi (ecological demonstration zones, also known as China-Switzerland low-carbon eco-city)is 2.4 square kilometers.
Fig.8 The functional partition structure of Eco Tai Lake city in Wuxi Tai Lake New City began its construction in August 2009, and till 2020, it plan to have a resident population of 80 million people and attracts employed population of 500,000 people. Its overall function is positioned as a business and trade center, science and creation center, and leisure livable center. Besides, it is the concentrated district of Wuxi future business, finance, corporate headquarters and professional services. The planning and construction of ecological demonstration area become the exemplary and leading role with eco-city project in East China. Location and Positioning
Fig.9 The General Plan of Eco Tai Lake city in Wuxi
The ecological construction practice of energy use Indicators of ecological planning require the renewable energy utilization rate to be or over 8%(including the average rate of built area), and 15% for the newly-constructed buildings; also, new building must perform 65% energy saving standards.
The ecological construction practice of energy use To promote the use of new technologies, it use different forms of renewable energy portfolio or regional energy form, which is based on the nature of different building requirements. Besides, energy consumption should be reduced from different aspects, energy efficiency improved, and scientific and rational use of the renewable energy can be further explored through specific projects.
The ecological construction practice of water resources use Water resources strategy is made from five aspects, which includes, from the aspect of water saving, fresh water demand should be reduced; from water providing, the utilization rate of non- conventional water resources should be improved; from sewage water, the treatment rate should be improved; from rain water, penetration rate should also be improved aiming at lowest impact; from water quality, the new construction area should be focused on, etc.
The ecological construction practice of waste treatment Green consumption should be advocated, also, waste generation reduced, the reuse of waste maximized. To achieve 100% of collection of garbage separated, 100% garbage recycled, and 100% construction waste recycled.
The ecological construction practice of waste treatment It is planned that in 2020: lot garbage output is about 0.7kg/day/person in the planning area; waste generated by the project will be source separated and collected. Also, it is planned that in 2020, block construction waste output is about 0.3kg/day/person, which will directly access to material classification and then recycle, where the mass concrete, brick and other waster will become renewable material after the crushing.
(1) Development of eco-city is an inevitable requirement for transformation of development model in the particular stage of urban development 4. Conclusion: further considerations on current Chinas Eco City construction Because of rapid urbanization in China, and will still has room to grow in the next years, the urban growth of number and size will mainly remain on the land, water and industrial development which support employment. the concept of ecological city and construction of ecological city have great significance, and this is an inevitable requirement for transformation of development model to China todays urbanization.
(2) Construction of eco-city is a goal, but achieving it should be diverse models By looking at the ways and methods of constructing eco city in developed countries, eco- city construction has variety of exploration experience at the technical level. However, successful experiences are based on relevant conditions and characteristics in different nations and regions. Due to the difference of economic levels, urban population and social and cultural varieties, therefore, some suitable experiences from developed countries are not necessarily suitable for Chinas development. For example, in construction costs, the eco-city should not be expensive, but should be emphasized fit technology paths, to avoid the expensive ecology, and to promote ecological wisdom. Eco-city construction strategies should based on different stages of economic development of city, different geographical conditions and different city sizes. Constructing eco-city should be regarded as a goal, thus, the approaches of realizing the goal could be diverse. Chinas current eco-city construction, should sum up relevant experience and learn lessons timely, and to explore suitable construction ways and multi- models.
(3) Construction of eco-city is a goal, but achieving it should be multiple ways From the whole process and period of urban development, the effect and benefit of applying eco technology need relatively a long term. Furthermore, some eco- technological projects in small scale locations, still needs time to examine their effect and impact for the whole eco-city construction. From concept to principles, to policy and practice countermeasures, eco-city construction needs top-down overall design and detail systematical considerations, especially needs relevant building code and standard, and should be applied in construction of projects. Therefore, construction of eco-city is a relatively long process, it needs policy support during whole period.
(4) Eco-city is not only a physical level, but also the social dimension Eco-city is not only in physical level, but also is a social dimension. Besides continuing to explore suitable eco technology, Chinas eco-city construction should also pay much attention to social eco and to have real actions on social considerations. Especially under the background of todays rapid urbanization period, urban population employment, living condition for low income level families and equal accessibility to basic public facilities and services, equity of development opportunities for all social group levels, and integration of urban and social diversity, should be considered within policy making to guide practices. These issues are important contents for social integrated development and to reflect eco wisdom. It is a new era of eco-city construction from technical eco to social eco. To realize this transformation will be the key issue for eco-city sustainable development, and will be the real and final aim and value of eco-city construction.
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