Presentation on theme: "COMMUNITY TELECENTERS AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN INDONESIA By: F.B. Moerwanto Naswil Idris Idris Sulaiman Video Conference, Jakarta - Washington DC: Improving."— Presentation transcript:
COMMUNITY TELECENTERS AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN INDONESIA By: F.B. Moerwanto Naswil Idris Idris Sulaiman Video Conference, Jakarta - Washington DC: Improving ICT Access, Sustainability and Security - the World Bank Office August 27, 2003
2 INTRODUCTION The Maitland Commissions (1984) recommendation: The telephone should be within easy reach to all triggered conceptualization of Telecenters by many countries and the ITU Various models to satisfy groups or communities such as SME, rural communities, university, schools, health center, etc.
3 What is Telecenters or BIM in Indonesia? Balai Informasi Masyarakat (BIM) is a (rural) public venue, where information and telecommunications services are provided to the public in its vicinity.
4 The services rendered are the conventional telephone and faxes (facsimile), but also enhanced services for information handling as deemed necessary such as electronic mail, certain applications of data communication, even multimedia systems to support tele-education, tele- conferencing, tele-medicine and others. What is Telecenters or BIM in Indonesia?
5 The function of a BIM is also to empower the local community to participate as "generator and provider of information", among others for marketing purposes, sale of produce and so forth. What is Telecenters or BIM in Indonesia?
6 In order to render information and telecommunications services, the Balai is also furnished with space and staff for the purpose of consultations and training, on subjects relevant to the community needs. What is Telecenters or BIM in Indonesia? Source: MASTEL
7 Indonesian Facts 1: Monetary crisis since 1997 still not well recovered Indonesia has 86 000 villages, some 43 000 villages (50%) have no telephones (ICT), and 220 million people No or low competence in ICT manufacture 1996 plans for Electronic Super Highway, but not materialized Current penetration: telephones (fixed) 4 %, cellular 4 %, internet user 2%
8 Indonesian Facts 2: 90% House hold have no fixed line (let alone PC). More than 60% Internet Café (Warnet) are in very small islands of Java and Bali. 40% are at 17,406 islands Around 300,000 Wartel (Telephone Café)/Telephone Kiosk - Cyber Window Around 2,000 Warnet (Internet Café)/Internet Kiosk
9 ICT POTENTIAL To transfer a bulk of information, instantly, with worldwide coverage, Provide interconnectivity / interconnectedness among all. Infocom is: –Empowering / educating – enhances knowledge and skills –Civilizing - through social contacts develop social cohesion and intelligence
10 LEARNING FROM OTHERS Introduction of Telecenters shall be well planned –Organization – involving local communities –Select services according to community needs –Technical plan – interconnectivity, power source –Technical support for sustainability –Supervision ( for efficient use of facilities) –Prepare for future growth –Financial
11 BACKGROUND Asymmetric access to infocom results in the digital divide (within and among nations) Universal access to ICT to be promoted Through social contacts, the concepts of cooperation and collaboration are developed, Enabling distributed but coordinated activities Notes: Avoid misunderstandings and conflicts
12 The digital divide The digital divide within and among nations recognized by the Tokyo Declaration (2003) has been observed by economists / advocates since the late 1960s, e.g. by Gunnar Myrdal in : Asian Drama (1968), Against the stream (1973), Rich and poor nations (Indonesian translation by Paul Sitohang) (1976) and many other publications
13 TREND IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIVIDE Asymmetric access to information (which is empowering / enabling tool) Disparity in (individual and communities) capacities and competencies Disparity in (sector) growth Disparity in growth disturbs resources allocations, but favoring the high growth Results in enforcing the divide within and among nations
14 Equitable access to alleviate the divide attempted: To education by compulsory education creating competencies (among advanced countries since more than 100 years) No attempts have made to make free access to technologies, specifically ICTs Free trade is disadvantageous to developing countries Technological dominance spread to economic dominance even to political dominance
15 Polarization and Stratification of the Community With the divide, the community becomes polarized and stratified into two poles of the rich and the poor, the educated and the uneducated, government and private, elite and commons…. Alienation by the higher strata in stratified communities results in the enforcement of the divide, leaving no way to catch up Universal access to ICTs is not only social or political strategy, but also a moral obligation
16 Imperatives Universal access to information, including education Easier access to technologies and research findings in all sectors (see Maitland Commissions recommendation in the Missing Link (1984) Telecenters is one example to reach all people
17 Problems: Organizational inability Initial operation of Telecenters might not be (commercially) profitable Lack of skilled support staff ICT equipments are costly (imported) Lack of awareness of ICT potentialities (cultural lag) by rural communities Lack of credits to SMEs
18 INDONESIA EXPERIENCE: 1. Initial concepts by various government departments – various models – but NOT lasting or in sound operational condition 2. The (commercial) service - telephony – Internet - by the private are successful, but NOT really penetrating the rural/isolated area and islands 3. Government has planned Universal Service Obligation (USO), but remains to be implemented 4. Lack of investment capability
19 Case study: 1. Flower Business In Bandung West Java Locality within flower gardens (SMEs), telephones available Services rendered are Internet e-mail, web browsing, web posting, etc Facilities have attracted teachers and schools in the area Attracted other government agencies (tourism) For commercial as well as individual uses Conducted by MASTEL (Indonesia ICT Association)
20 Case study: 2. In Small and Medium Business Sector Under PEG & USAID sponsor there are several Telecenters for SMEs exporters operated in Indonesia. Under Asia Foundation Indonesia & Castle Asia sponsor there are Telecenters in the area of SMEs & E-Commerce operated in Indonesia.
21 Case study: 3. In Educational Sector Rural Satellite Project in Eastern Island Under USAID & Telecom Company created 12 Telecenters at universities in eastern island from 1982-1992 Indonesian Open Learning University used temporary Post Offices in Bandung, Purwekerto and Padang as Telecenters Pilot Project for Distance Learning (also the nearest Warnet as Telecenters). Indonesian Private University (UPDMB) is using the nearest Warnet as Telecenters (see next pictures) Sekolah 2000 using certain schools as Telecenters.
22 Case study: 3. In Educational Sector Professor can encourage students to take advantage of Warnet as compliment to the library (library online) and class room interaction by using mailing list. Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo Beragama (UPDMB) The nearest Warnet/Cyber Window from universities can be considered as Telecenters.
23 Case study: 4. In Science & Technology Sector Warung Informasi & Teknologi (Warintek) Telecenters in Science & Technology. In 2002 there were 2.358 units & 4 mobile Warintek
24 Case study: 5. In Government Sector National Information Agency created Telecenters at JIEMI (Jaringan Informasi Elektronik Masyarakat Indonesia) - Electronic Information Networking for Indonesian Society at 2 Warnet Planex in Bogor University of Agriculture (IPB) in rural area & Banda Aceh as a pilot project (Distributing/Absorbing Government Information for rural people through Warnet).
25 Case study: 6. In Tourism Sector Bali Online created several Telecenters in the area of tourism (Hotels, Handicraft and so on).
26 Future plans: USO (Universal Service Obligation) implementation (government) Government Policy on USO still pending Private participation in ICT provision, along with districts higher autonomy Encourage Telecenters upgrading including for tele-learning, tele-health, on-line shopping and other applications through the Internet
27 Thank You for your attention F.B. Moerwanto Naswil Idris Idris Sulaiman