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Synthesis Gas to Gasoline Production

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Presentation on theme: "Synthesis Gas to Gasoline Production"— Presentation transcript:

1 Synthesis Gas to Gasoline Production
ChE 397 Senior Design Group Alpha Ayesha Rizvi Bernard Hsu Jeff Tyska Mohammed Shehadeh Yacoub Awwad

2 Group Members and Roles
Jeffrey Tyska Group Leader Ayesha Rizvi Research Bernard Hsu Technical Writer Mohammed Shehadeh Webmaster Yacoub Awwad Calculation Expert

3 Gasoline Prices All Time High: $4.11/gal General Increasing Trend

4 Peak Production 1970 Defeyes, Kenneth S. Hubbert's Peak: the Impending World Oil Shortage. Princeton: Princeton UP,

5 World Oil Production Peak World Production

6 Methanol as a Feedstock
Different Sources of Methanol Natural Gas Biomass Municipal Solid Waste Coal Why Syn Gas to make Methanol ? Economical Efficient

7 Why Gasoline and Mobil Process?
Existing infrastructure Established demand Reduced SOx emissions Fairly easy to scale Fairly renewable feedstock Energy Independence

8 Environmental Review

9 Competing Processes Fischer-Tropsch Oil Tar Sands 43%
(2n+1) H2 + n CO → CnH(2n+2) + n H2O 43%

10 Syngas to Methanol 2H2 + CO Synthesis + + + Dimethyl Ether Dehydration
(Alumina Catalyst) Dimethyl Ether 2H2 + CO Synthesis The compressed synthesis gas enters the converter reactor containing copper zinc and catalyst and the synthesis reaction occurs, according to the equation: 2𝐻 CO CH3OH ∆rH = -92 kJ 𝑚𝑜𝑙 −1 This reaction is highly exothermic and the low temperatures and increasing pressure favors the conversion to methanol formation. The final conditions used involve a copper oxide based catalyst at about 5 MPa (50 atmospheres) pressure and about 270ºC. + + +

11 Process Equations 2 CH3OCH3 + H2O C5+ + H2O Possible alternative fuel
dehydration 2 CH3OCH3 + H2O ZSM-5 C5+ + H2O

12 Zeolite Socony Mobil 5 Isomerization First synthesized in 1972
U. S. Patent 3,702,886 (Mobil Oil Company 1975)  NanAlnSi96–nO192·16H2O (0<n<27) Pentasil unit = 8 five-membered rings Isomerization Methane diffusion through zeolite catalyst download_lo_res.html?id=

13 Gasoline grade High Quality Similar Properties Very low Sulfur
2% Durene

14 Constraints of the MTG process
Highly Exothermic High concentration of durene that causes carburetor “icing” Catalyst aging Reversible- caused by coked catalyst Irreversible- caused by the steam Band aging Allows the reactant to break through the bed unconverted Unconverted methanol may be lost from dissolving in water Inability to directly produce diesel and jet fuel.

15 Scale 1800 metric tons syngas / day 900 metric tons gasoline / day
Newton County Landfill 265 Acres Next to gasifier 50-60% plant thermal efficiency Losses mainly from methanol production

16 Block Flow Diagram CO Methanol to Gasoline Reactors Methanol Reactor
DME CO Light Gas Methanol to Gasoline Reactors MeOH Methanol Reactor DME Reactor H2O H2 MeOH H2O, trace contaminants Crude Gasoline Heavy Gasoline Wastewater treatment H2 Durene Reactor Distillation Columns HVP Gasoline Light Gasoline Heavy Gasoline (less durene) Final Storage Blending Storage To consumer or refineries for final blending Additives

17 End!

18 ZSM-5 In the 1970's, Mobil synthesized a new zeolite catalyst (ZSM-5), which became a key element in the MTG process. Zeolites are porous, crystalline materials with three dimensional framework composed of AlO4 and SiO4 tetrahedral. ZSM-5 catalyst produces the right kind of shape and size selectivity properties suitable for gasoline synthesis. Methane diffusion through zeolite catalyst download_lo_res.html?id=

19 Oil Consumption in the USA
20,802,162 (2005) 18,686,223 (2009)

20 Gasoline Storage Blending Dist Col. 3 Dist Col. 2 Dist Col. 1
Syngas MeOH reactor 270 C, 5 MPa H2, CO, CO2, H2O Crude MeOH DME Reactor Cooler Flash separator MeOH CO, H2, CO2 Hot Effluent Cooled Effluent Additives Gasoline Storage *1 *1 MTG *1 MTG *1 MTG *1 MTG Separator Gasoline Blending Water HVP Storage Liquid HC Cooler Light Gasoline Storage HVP Gasoline Cool Effluent For Sale Recycle Gas Liquid HC Heavy Gasoline Storage Light Gasoline LPG Dist Col. 3 Cooler Dist Col. 2 *2 Dist Col. 1 HVP Gasoline Treated Heavy Gasoline Liquid HC Durene Reactor H2 *1 – MTG Reactors *2 – Mix of gas, water and light HCs *3 – Boilers and Condensers not included *3 *3 *3 Liquid HC Heavy Gasoline

21 Environmental Review Production of methanol from synthesis gas generates a limited pressure to the environment. Methanol is a compound of relative low toxicity. All plant waste effluents will be regularly analyzed and checked to meet environmental restrictions and conditions. Environmental & Global Safety sintankimya.com

22 ZSM-5 Catalyst In the 1970's, Mobil synthesized a new zeolite catalyst (ZSM-5), which is a key element in the MTG process. Zeolites are porous, crystalline materials with three dimensional framework composed of AlO4 and SiO4 tetrahedral. ZSM-5 catalyst produces an unusual shape and has size selectivity properties suitable for gasoline synthesis. Methane diffusion through zeolite catalyst download_lo_res.html?id=

23 Syngas to Methanol The overall reaction in which methanol is produced from synthesis gas is summarized by the following equation: 𝐂𝐎 𝟐 + 𝐂𝐎+ 𝟓𝐇 𝟐 → 𝟐𝐂𝐇 𝟑 𝐎𝐇 + 𝐇 𝟐 𝐎 + heat Cu-Zn is the Copper – Zinc Catalyst used in the reaction. The methanol produced contains a large range of impurities which have to be removed to produce methanol of chemical grade quality. In addition, side reactions occur during methanol production, such as the generation of higher alcohols (ethanol, propanol, butanol) and alkanes. Cu-Zn The compressed synthesis gas enters the converter reactor containing copper zinc and catalyst and the synthesis reaction occurs, according to the equation: 2𝐻 CO CH3OH ∆rH = -92 kJ 𝑚𝑜𝑙 −1 This reaction is highly exothermic and the low temperatures and increasing pressure favors the conversion to methanol formation. The final conditions used involve a copper oxide based catalyst at about 5 MPa (50 atmospheres) pressure and about 270ºC.

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26 Methanol as a Feedstock
Different Sources of Methanol Natural Gas Coal Biomass Conversion to Syn-Gas ( Partial Oxidation) Municipal Solid Waste Why Syn Gas to make Methanol ? More Economical Better Methanol Purity More Efficient


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