Presentation on theme: "By Keri Carter and Mike Madey. Encompasses approximately 919 square miles of land, rivers, and wetlands. Coastline stretches nearly 100 miles along the."— Presentation transcript:
Encompasses approximately 919 square miles of land, rivers, and wetlands. Coastline stretches nearly 100 miles along the Atlantic Ocean. Vital protected areas include: Francis Marion National Forest Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge ACE Basin National Wildlife Refuge
Education: high school degree or higher level of education: ~87% bachelors degree or higher: ~36% Tourism In Charleston The visitor industry provides approximately19,000 direct and indirect jobs, with an annual economic impact of more than $1 billion ~5 million people visit yearly.
Charleston: $ Approximately 180,000 automobiles 77% of the workforce drive to work alone $ Total Population: 348,046 $ Population Growth from 2000-08: 12.3% $ per capita income: $28,649 $ Living below poverty line: 15.2% $ Major Employers $Port (direct and indirect jobs) 55,000 $US Navy C/O Naval Weapons Station: 10,800 $Medical University Of South Carolina (MUSC): 10,000 $Charleston Air Force Base: 6,150 $Charleston County School District: 5,400
Main sources of energy for Charleston County: Coal 45% Natural gas 30% Nuclear 11% Petroleum 14% South Carolina: 28th highest emitter of C02 of all 50 states and the 26th most populous. No coal mines in South Carolina. SC receives most of its coal from Kentucky. SC ranks 17 th out of 50 states in coal energy production. Cogen South Power Plant----Owned by SCE&G CO 2 Emissions: 1,039,625 tons (2006) SO 2 Emissions: 1,055 tons (2002) SO 2 Emissions per MWh: 3.68 lb/MWh NO x Emissions: 1,487 tons (2002) Source: (Energy Information Administration and The USEPA)
In South Carolina, residential electrical energy use accounts for 35% of the electricity consumption (commercial 25% and industrial 39%). C of C emitted 38,712 Metric Tonnes of Carbon Dioxide Equivalents in 2001. However, there has been a net decrease of 12% in total greenhouse gas emissions from 1993-2001. The purchasing of more efficient natural gas boilers for use in the Physical Plant was responsible for the overall decrease. C of C relies on fossil fuels for 86 % of its energy needs and nuclear for 11%. Source: (College of Charleston Greenhouse Gas Audit, 1993-2001)
Air Pollution & Health Hazards Humans, animals, plant life, fishery Sea Level Rise At or near sea level Storm intensity Flooding thats prevalent now Coastal Erosion What Charleston Is Doing To Combat Climate Change.
Coal is positioned to push the planet beyond the dangerous climate change threshold of 450 ppm Burning coal causes smog, soot, acid rain, global warming, and toxic air emissions. SCE&G: 45% of electricity generated comes from coal. Most commonly used house heating fuel in houses, condos, and apartments: Electricity at ~ 65%
Soot: So-called "black carbon" could cause up to 60% of the current warming effect of carbon dioxide, according to the US researchers, making it an important target for efforts to slow global warming. Opposite of global dimming Produced by volcanoes and industrial processes Long term exposure of SO 2 in the air can cause: respiratory illness and aggravate existing heart disease. Acid rain damages forests and crops, changes the makeup of soil, and makes lakes and streams acidic and unsuitable for fish. Source: (Guardian.co.uk and the USEPA)
According to the IPCC, there is a direct connection between global warming and the health of South Carolinians. Many human diseases are sensitive to weather, from cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses due to heat waves or air pollution, to altered transmission of infectious diseases. For Charleston: Air quality degradation causing damage to: immune system, as well as neurological, reproductive (e.g., reduced fertility), developmental, respiratory and other health problems. Higher Temperatures Resulting in possible increase in heart and respiratory diseases Sea level rise encroaching on clean water reserves Source: (IPCC and the USEPA)
Approximately one-third of all Americans live in counties immediately bordering the nations ocean Coasts. Coastal and ocean activities contribute more than $1 trillion to the nations gross domestic product. Major hurricanes also pose a severe risk to people, personal property, and public infrastructure in the Southeast, and this risk is likely to be exacerbated. As sea level rises, coastal shorelines will retreat. Wetlands will be inundated and eroded away, and low-lying areas including some communities will be inundated more frequently – some permanently – by the advancing sea. Source: (United States Global Change Research Program)
At Charleston, sea level already is rising by 9 inches per century, and it is likely to rise another 19 inches by 2100. The cumulative cost of sand replenishment to protect the coast of South Carolina from a 20-inch sea level rise by 2100 is estimated at $1.2-$9.4 billion. Think about current flooding downtown and how the effects would be exacerbated by a sea level rise of just a couple of inches, compounded with increased storm intensity caused by warmer water temperature. Current buildings and infrastructure were not designed to withstand the intensity of the projected storm surge Hurricane Hugo (1989): Storm surge greater than 12 feet above sea level carried and deposited sand over 250 feet inland. The need for changes in land-use planning and infrastructure design to avoid increased damages from heavy precipitation events. Elevation of coastal areas: Isle of Palms 7ft. Above sea level Kiawah Island 10ft. Above sea level James Island 13ft. Above sea level City of Charleston 20ft. Above sea level Source: (Environmental Protection Agency's report on climate change and The NOAA)
Visit Boneyard Beach on Bull Island in the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge and you will see bleached oaks, cedars and pines strewn across the beach. coastal marshes are highly productive systems, provide nursery areas for fish and shellfish, and help to protect upland areas from flooding. The ability for salt marshes to keep pace with sea-level rise depends on location, sediment supply and the opportunity to migrate landward.
A continued rise in sea level could change the sea bottom near the coast, which may bring stronger currents. When there is not enough sand left available on a beach, then there is no recovery of the beach following storms. Example: Folly Island, (South Carolina) Tourist destination, an economic resource, and a rapidly eroding barrier island. Folly beach has undergone shoreline erosion since the completion of the Charleston Harbor Jetties (1890s) and disrupted the southerly longshore transport of sand to Folly and Morris Islands. Seawalls and groin fields protect property located along Folly's beach from shoreline erosion of at least 1 to 3 feet per year.
Folly Beach renourishment in 1993 Cost $12.52 million. To restore the Folly's recreational beach and to protect beachfront property, a $ 15.3 million federally funded renourishment project placement of 2.5 million cubic yards of sand along a 5.3-mile stretch of shoreline. (2006) Folly Island has lost over 13 acres of beachfront. In the past 14 years three beach renourishment projects have mitigated the amount of sand lost.
Coastal erosion and SLR effects the Charleston Tourism industry as well as homeowners. The need to address climate change through adaptation and mitigation is strongly urged in order to protect the coastal areas against future climate and SLR predictions.
On June 13, 2005, the Mayors Climate Protection Agreement was passed by the U.S. Conference of Mayors. Mayor Riley of the City of Charleston has signed on to the agreement. Under the Agreement, participating cities commit to take following three actions: Strive to meet or beat the Kyoto Protocol targets through actions ranging from antisprawl land-use policies, urban forest restoration projects and public information campaigns Urge their state governments, and the federal government, to enact policies and programs to meet or beat the greenhouse gas emission reduction target suggested for the US in the Kyoto Protocol -- 7% reduction from 1990 levels by 2012 Urge the U.S. Congress to pass the bipartisan Climate Stewardship Act, which would establish a national emission trading system. South Carolina has established a Shoreline Change Advisory Committee to consider longstanding management practices and challenges in the light of new sea-level rise projections.
Streamlining City fleet vehicles by increasing hybrid fleet and converting to biodiesel-compatible vehicles. City is also in the process of switching to Energy Efficient LED Traffic and Exit Signs (40% complete). Save the Lowcountry Campaign has rolled out billboard ads and a Web site aimed at convincing people the region will suffer tremendously if greenhouse gas emissions aren't sharply reduced. South Carolina lawmakers went to Washington to argue that the state needs more coal-fired electric plants and that carbon caps or taxes would unfairly harm state residents. City of Charleston hired Brian P. Sheehan as its director of sustainability, a new position created this year. The sustainability director will create long- and short-term goals and lead projects that promote environmental sustainability within city government. Charleston Green Initiative