Presentation on theme: "Ghana’s Initial National Communication William K. Agyemang-Bonsu EPA."— Presentation transcript:
Ghana’s Initial National Communication William K. Agyemang-Bonsu EPA
Ghana’s UNFCCC and KP Implementation Efforts - 1 Ghana’s Initial National Communication Greenhouse gas emissions inventory Greenhouse gas emissions inventory Vulnerability and adaptation Assessment Vulnerability and adaptation Assessment Impacts of Climate on Water Resources Water Resources Agriculture Agriculture Coastal Zone Coastal Zone Mitigation Options Mitigation Options Reduction of Emissions from Energy Enhancement of sink capacity through forest protection and regeneration
Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments The Netherlands Climate Change Studies Assistance Programme (NCCSAP 1) Impacts of climate change Water Resources, agriculture and coastal zone
Some of Results Impacts Climate Change on Water Resources in Ghana Reduction in flows between 15-20% and 30-40% for the year 2020 and 2050 respectively in all the basins. Groundwater recharge was to reduce between 5% and 22% by the year 2020 and 30% - 40% by the year 2050. Irrigation water demand was to increase to about 40% and 150% for 2020 and 2050 due to climate change respectively and 5% and 17% without climate change Hydropower generation could seriously be affected by climate change leading about 60% reduction in available water in all basins by 2020, already is being felt.
Impacts on Agriculture Production V&A was done for cereal production, specifically for maize, millet, rice and sorghum It was projected that the yield of maize would decrease to 6.9% in the year 2020. The yield of millet, however, would not be affected by climate change because millet is more drought-tolerant and therefore insensitive to temperature rise
Impacts on Coastal Zone Direct inundation (or submergence) of low-lying wetland and dry-land areas Erosion of soft shores by increasing offshore loss of sediment, e.g. 3m per year along the east coast is now occurring Increases in salinity of estuaries and aquifers Raised coastal water tables Exacerbated coastal flooding and storm damage. These impacts will in turn influence coastal habitats, bio- diversity and socio-economic activities Estimated cost of protecting all shorelines (550km) at risk with populations greater than 10 persons per km 2 with seawalls is US$1.14 billion (based on 2000 cost estimates). The protection of only the important areas, reduces that cost to US$590 million.
Results of Ghana Coastal Zone Vulnerability Assessment The assessment of the vulnerability of Ghana’s coastal zone to climate change carried out by the Environmental Protection Agency in 2000, provides a number of insightful results. It has been estimated that: 3.3% of the population within the coastal zone is at risk as a result of inundation and shoreline recession and this population is mainly within the east coast, 3.3% of the population within the coastal zone is at risk as a result of inundation and shoreline recession and this population is mainly within the east coast, In the east coast, the erosion of the shores may be occurring at an average rate of 3 m per year In the east coast, the erosion of the shores may be occurring at an average rate of 3 m per year
Results of Ghana Coastal Zone Vulnerability Assessment A total of 1,110 km2 of land along the coast will be lost if nothing is done to protect them. Most of the affected areas are within the east coast. The areas east of the Volta River estuary are particularly vulnerable. The central coast is the least vulnerable in Ghana. The land at risk includes significant areas that are currently wetland with substantial amounts of mangroves. There will be rise in soil moisture content of sandy and silty soils along the coastal zone. These soils when subjected to vibrations will liquefy. The structures founded on these soils could thus be at risk of collapse during earthquakes. The rising water table as a result of sea-level rise will increase the risk of earthquake hazards. The highest risk zone is the Accra area. The risk diminishes eastward and westward.
Results of Ghana Coastal Zone Vulnerability Assessment The cost of protecting all shorelines at risk with populations greater than 10 persons per km2 with seawalls is US$1,144 million. The protection of important areas reduces that cost to US$590 million. Major water supply facilities that serve Axim, Sekondi- Takoradi, Cape Coast, Winneba and Accra as well as the South-eastern District Water Supply Scheme at Sogakope and Ada will be affected as a result of salt water intrusion, which has the potential of increasing water treatment costs The EPA climate change vulnerability and adaptation assessment of the coastal zone of Ghana further revealed gaps in legislation and institutional arrangements for the management of the coastal zone.
Sustainable Development Criteria for CDM Projects Social Good Governance (should not lead to social unrest) Poverty reduction Creating employment Creating economic opportunities Equitable access and utilisation of resources Skill and expertise development Improvement in the quality of lives of the citizens Access to affordable energy
Economic Promote economic growth Promoting Investments Being a major player in the global economy Provide macro economic benefits, such as foreign exchange generation Equitable access and participation to economic opportunities
Environmental Improve local environment Local air quality Brown and Green issues Environmental health issues Sustainable forests management Development of environmental friendly technologies Increasing the quantity and quality of environmental management skills