2Contents Introduction. Consumption of energy tabels. The importance of energy reduction.A way of sustainable energy.Conclusion.
3IntroductionSustainable energy sources are energy sources which are not expected to be depleted in a timeframe relevant to the human race, and which therefore contribute to the sustainability of all species. This concept is termed sustainability.Sustainable energy sources are most often regarded as including all renewable sources, such as solar power, wind power, wave power, geothermal power, tidal power, and others.Fission power and fusion power meet the definition of sustainability, but there is controversy over whether or not they should be regarded as sustainable for social and political reasons.
10Sustainable Development Why should we be sustainable?
11Current observational effects The melting of glaciers, which causes drought in higher altitude regions.
12Current observational effects The increased number of glacial lakes, resulting in a higher sea level.
13Current observational effects The increased ground instability in permafrost regions and rock avalanches in mountain regions.
14Current observational effects The warming of lakes and rivers, which become more receptive to viruses and parasites, making it unable to drink.
15Current observational effects The acidification of the sea by 0.1 pH.
16Current observational effects The increased frequency of forest fires.
17Current observational effects The earlier timing of spring events, such as leaf unfolding.
18Current observational effects The extinction of many species.
19Current observational effects The increased heat related mortality to humans.
20Current observational effects The higher spreading of infectious diseases.
21The FutureBy mid-century, in tropical and wet areas an increase between 10 and 40 percent of available water is expected, while a decrease between 10 to 30 percent in dry areas.In the course of the century there will be reduced water availability in regions supplied by melt water. This covers an area where more than one billion people live.Increased flood risk.By mid-century, a peak of the uptake of carbon dioxide by ecosystems will take place, which after that, will decrease, or even reverse.
22The FutureRoughly 20 to 30 percent of the plant and animal species will face extinction within the next century.The relocation of species with negative consequences for biodiversity.Many millions are projected to flood every year due to sea-level rise by the 2080’s.Economic repression, and even downfall, of all countries affected by climate change, since investments have to be made for the adaptation to the new climate.
23The Future The Oil problem The Gas problem Supply 210,834 trillion litresWe use million litres of oil per dayWithin the next 44 years our oil will be depletedSupply trillion cubic metersWe use trillion cubic meters per year.Within the next 61 years our gas will be depleted
24Vision on sustainable energy Almere-Hout The Netherlands
25Aim on sustainable energy Almere lies about 25 km from Amsterdam.Almere-Hout is a new housing district and is a part of the city of Almere.Aim for Almere-Hout: Sustainable energy for houses and industry. To be realised over the next 12 years.
26Ambitions for sustainable energy Use of possible energy supply variables.Reduction of (fossil) energy.Reduction of CO2 emission.There are two energy performance indications to express the aim of the reduction: -EPC = energy performance coefficient. -EPL = energy performance on locations.
27Energy Performance Coefficient This means energy performance for one building.It is expressed by a number.Momentarily this number is 1 (one).The aim is: 0,8 = 20% reduction.EPC is focussed on energy use for house heating and limited use of electricity.
28Energy Performance on Location Energy performance for a district.It has a ranking from 0 to 10.The higher the ranking, the better the performance.EPL is a measure for CO2 emission of a location due to energy use on the buildings of that location.10 means complete energy supply.Ambition: 50% CO2 reduction = EPL 7.
29Sustainable energy forms Possible energy forms that can be used are: -Ecogas. -Biomass power station. -Fuel cell. -Green energy. -Individual/collective heat pump.
30EcogasEcogas is a replacement for fossil fuel by waste gas from agriculture farms, garbage locations, sewer installations etc.By recycling this waste gas to ecogas, the emission of CO2 will be prevented and also the use of fossil fuel will be stopped.Ecogas is not yet available.
31BiomassBiomass is a collective term for all kinds of organic materials, e.g. wood, grass and manure.A biomass power station has to be build for the location of Almere-Hout.All houses have to be connected to a heat net.Supply of heat and electricity comes from a central biomass power station.
32Fuel cellsA fuel cell is a ‘battery’. The battery will be charged with sustainable energy for instance from ecogas. The energy in the battery can be used for heat and electricity.All houses possibly have to be installed with fuel cells.
33Green energyGreen energy is electricity produced by windmills, waterpower and solarcells.In Almere and surroundings the use of windmills is widely practiced.
34Individual/collective waterpump An electrical waterpump connected to a low temperature water-net. The water-net supplies the energy source for the waterpump. The waterpump is used to heat the water in the houses.
35CostsTo reach an EPL of 0,8 it is estimated that the costs per house will be 6000,- Euro above normal costs for a house to build.This means that the energy costs for the residents will be higher than normal.Policy has to be developed to prevent higher costs for the residents in this project.