Presentation on theme: "+ By Adar Thau, Adam Slavick, and Carmen Perez Garrido Smog and Ground-Level Ozone."— Presentation transcript:
+ By Adar Thau, Adam Slavick, and Carmen Perez Garrido Smog and Ground-Level Ozone
+ What is Smog? What is Ozone? Smog (ground-level ozone) is a chemical mixture of gases, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), which form a brownish-yellow haze primarily over urban areas. Ozone: Gas formed by three oxygen atoms (O3)
+ What is the difference between good and bad ozone? Ozone in the stratosphere protects against UV radiation. Ground-level ozone is hazardous to the human health and to the environment.
+ Why is Smog an issue to society? Why is it important? Smog has several short-term health effects on humans, such as nose irritation, throat irritation, chest pain, coughing and nausea. Smog has several long-term health effects on humans, such as permanent damage to lungs. Ground-level ozone damages vegetation and ecosystems. In the US alone, ozone is responsible for 70 million dollars in reduced crop production. In plants, ozone damages plant tissue, leads to 10 – 40 % growth loss, premature aging, and decrease in pollen life span. In animals, ozone causes decreased lung capacity and lung elasticity
+ What are the causes of Smog? When inactive air masses linger over urban areas, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (and other pollutants for that matter) are held in place for long periods of time. Sunlight transforms them into ground- level ozone after interacting with them.
+ What are the causes of Smog? The nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds come from: vehicles, industrial boilers, and commercial and consumer products. Fossil fuels and their byproducts are responsible for 95% of NOx and 60% for VOC emissions.
+ Hole in The Ozone Layer: How does it affect Smog levels? The hole in the stratospheric ozone layer (around the Arctic Circle) lets in UV radiation and heat, which are trapped beneath the stratospheric layer. This trapped heat ends up triggering the chemical reactions that cause smog.
+ Ground-level ozone is solvable. From 1980- 2009, there has been a 30 % decrease in the National average of Ozone air quality.
+ How can YOU help? Drive less Drive smart Save energy Choose air-friendly products Waste not Speak up for clean air
+ What is currently being done to help solve our smog problem? What are some laws? Efforts: Many fuel-efficient cars are being engineered. People are becoming aware of the consequences that smog presents us with. Laws: The Federal Clean Air Act (FCAA) is the federal law passed in 1970, and last amended in 1990, which forms the basis for the national air pollution control efforts. California Air Pollution Control Laws are a collection of laws that control various scenarios, in which pollution would be emitted that could otherwise be controlled.
+ Contacts: You can go to http://www.epa.gov/epahome/comme nts3.htm to contact the national Environment Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/epahome/comme nts3.htm You can contact California Environmental Protection Agency at (800) 242-4450 or visit http://www.arb.ca.gov/homepage.htm http://www.arb.ca.gov/homepage.htm Who can be contacted for additional information about Smog or to voice your opinions/feelings?
+ Bibliography "Smog and Ground-Level Ozone." Environmental Fact Sheet. 2008.Web. 7 Mar. 2011. http://des.nh.gov/. "The Ozone Notepad." School of Chemistry - Bristol University -UK. Web. 10 Mar. 2011.http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/ozone/Low.htm. "Smog." Welcome to the National Capital Free Net. Web. 10 Mar.2011.http://www.ncf.ca/ip/social.services/eco/info/primer/smog/all. "Ground-level Ozone | US EPA." US Environmental ProtectionAgency. Web. 10 Mar. 2011. http://www.epa.gov/glo/. "Air Quality." Environmental Encyclopedia. Gale, 2009. GaleOpposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 8 Mar. 2011. "Ozone Layer." Environmental Science: In Context. Ed. BrendaWilmot Lerner and K. Lee Lerner. Vol.2. Detroit: Gale, 2009.661-663.Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 8 Mar. 2011.