Presentation on theme: "Building Condition Assessment and Documentation Part IV – Mech, Elec & Plumbing Randy Warbington, PE Facilities Program Manager Southern Region USDA Forest."— Presentation transcript:
Building Condition Assessment and Documentation Part IV – Mech, Elec & Plumbing Randy Warbington, PE Facilities Program Manager Southern Region USDA Forest Service Mark McDonough, PE Assistant Station Engineer Southern Research Station USDA Forest Service 3 Day Course Prepared for Presentation at ESRU, March 10-12, 2008 Edited for Presentation at National Facilities Meeting, April 30-May 2, 2008
What to Look for When Inspecting Plumbing Toilets and Urinals Sinks and Lavatories Tubs and Showers Drinking Fountains Eye Wash Units Water Heaters Piping – Water, Waste, Vent, Gas
WI – Toilet/Urinal Replacement Removal and replacement of toilets and/or urinals, including flush valves Life expectancy for the fixture is 35 years, for the flush valves, perhaps 10 years (note: replacement of flush valves only is O&M) Many old ones are not accessible; they may be leaking May need replacement with water saving toilets – dual flush or 1.5 gpf water closets and waterless or 1/8 gpf urinals Waterless Urinals
WI – Toilet Replacement (cont.) Bowl should be elongated vs. round, and open seat cover as above should be provided for public uses. Has grab bar (not right size) and seat is too low.
WI – Sink or Lavatory Replacement Removal and replacement of fixture, including faucets and drains Unit of measure is each, or per sink May be needed for accessibility purposes Typical life expectancy is 35 years
WI – Sink or Lavatory Replacement Replacement of a sink of this magnitude would be a custom work item not covered by the standard item. Notice the duplex receptacles (GFCI?) and the AC unit located just above the sink.
Work Item – Tub/Shower Replacement This representative work item covers removal and replacement of tub, shower or combo unit, whether porcelain, tile, fiberglass, etc., including faucets and drains May be needed for accessibility reasons Expected life – 25 years
WI – Drinking Fountain Removal and replacement of complete unit (dont save old one) May be needed for accessibility purposes, or due to compressor failure; unit of measure is each Typical life expectancy is 10 years Note: unit requires the notch under the fountain for accessibility
Work Item – Eyewash Unit Remove/replace worn out unit Unit of measure is each Test units during inspection to assure that they continue to be functional Assure that they are easily accessible Life expectancy – 25 years
WI – Water Heaters This item includes complete removal and replacement of water heaters, gas or electric, including valves, venting, etc. as required with the Forest Service standard (commercial, not residential) Also covers small boilers up to about 150,000 Btuh Look at the nameplate to determine its date of manufacture Unit of measure is each Life expectancy – 15 years
Water Heaters (safety items) Check to assure pop-off valves are present, are turned down toward the floor and plumbed to a floor drain or to the outside Check to assure seismic restraints are in place as appropriate Check to assure gas units are located a minimum of 18 above the floor Check to assure anti-scald devices are functional
Work Item – LP Gas or Fuel Oil Piping This work item is for the complete replacement of a typical LP service from the tank to the building, including piping and fittings; the tank and regulators are a separate item, often buried, unlike the one shown here; unit of measure is linear feet Existing gas piping may be hard or soft copper, black iron, polyethylene May be rusted or corroded, or leaks may be suspected Could also be used to cover fuel oil system Typical service life – 30 Years Using soapy water to check for leaks at the regulator
Piping – Water and DWV Water pipe may be galvanized, copper, PVC, CPVC, polyethylene, polybutylene Drain, waste and vent pipe may be cast iron, PVC or ABS Usually lasts the life of the building unless it has frozen, or in the case of galvanized piping, corroded Fixing leaks is normally immediately obvious and handled as O&M Required plumbing work of this nature would be a custom work item
Inspecting HVAC Systems
What to Look for When Inspecting HVAC Systems Furnaces and Heat Pump Air Handling Units Condensing Units Condensate Piping – Terminations Refrigerant Piping Filters Circulation Pumps Boilers Chillers Cooling Towers Package Terminal Units Unit Heaters Ductwork – Cleaning Duct Replacement Registers Controls
WI – Circulation Pumps Fractional horsepower up to about 3 hp, could also cover vacuum pumps, including controls Note (water system pumps in pump houses are W&S, not Buildings) Unit of measure is each Often need better support, vibration mounts, isolation valves, flexible connections, disconnects nearby Typical Life Expectancy – 20 Years
WI – Boiler Replacement May be cast iron, steel, copper fin, or condensing type from 200,000 up to about 2 million Btuh, oil or gas-fired Unit of measure is each Often need replacement to improve system efficiency Typical life is 30 years
Small Boilers (150 MBtuh or less) Replacement of boilers up to about 150,000 Btuh are better represented by WI – Water heaters Typical Life – 15 Years Often need replacement to improve system efficiency – older boilers 60%, condensing are 90+% Unit of measure is each
WI – Cooling Towers This work item covers the complete removal and replacement of a worn out cooling tower and appurtenances Unit of measure is each Typically used in conjunction with a water- cooled chiller Life expectancy – 15 years
WI – Water-Cooled Chiller This item is for removal and replacement Typically used in conjunction with a cooling tower, normally located indoors in a mechanical room May be centrifugal, screw or piston and cylinder Units with tons of cooling capacity are common in our labs Expected life is about 40 years
WI – Air-Cooled Chiller This work item is similar to the one above, it is for removal and replacement of a worn out chiller Unit of measure is each Package units located outside on a pad or on the roof Typical size for our labs is tons of cooling capacity Life expectancy – 15 years
WI – Replace Condensing Unit Residential and Light Commercial Units to 5 tons Cooling Capacity May be required for energy efficiency and ozone-saving refrigerants Typical Life Expectancy – 15 Years Other common situations – inadequate clearance, not level, bent fins or guards, refrigerant pipe insulation damaged – if exposed to sun recommend white UV-coating.
Larger Condensing Units Larger Units like this up to perhaps 60 tons each are common at labs Note the number to be replaced and the tonnage Base on life expectancy of 15 years, similar to previous item This is a custom work item
WI – Furnaces, Heat Pump AHUs Includes electric, LP, fuel oil and natural gas furnaces, as well as water source and air-air heat pump blower coil units Unit of measure is each May need replacement to increase system efficiency Typical life expectancy is about 15 years for heat pumps and 20 years for furnaces
Wished they all looked like this! Mechanical Room in Bessey RD Office Check condensate lines and terminations to assure they are clear; also check condensate pumps. If gas check to assure that ventilation has not been blocked, where required, and check to see if carbon monoxide detectors are in place. If not, note the need for these detectors. For water source units check for visible leaks in piping. For all units assure that filters are accessible and are in place.
Wood Heaters and Wood Stoves Removal and replacement of wood heaters and wood stoves can be represented by WI #11007 as well Free-standing, central system, wood, coal or pellets Includes the unit as well as venting Need to check to assure adequate clearance from combustibles
WI – Package Terminal HVAC Unit Item is for removal and replacement of worn out or inoperative units Through-the-wall, gas-pak, hotel unit, rooftop, mounted in windows, or suspended from ceiling tiles Vary a lot in efficiency Unit of measure is each Typical life expectancy is 10 years Ductless Split System Could Also Fit into this Category PTAC
WI – Unit Heater This item covers removal and replacement of unit heaters, may be electric or gas; could also include gas tube heaters as well Unit of measure is each Typical life expectancy – 15 years Note: CO monitors should be in place if units are gas or oil fueled.
WI – Air Compressors This items is for removal and replacement of worn out air compressors permanently mounted to a building, not portable units Unit of measure is each Typical life expectancy – 25 years Note: portable air compressors are personal property, not real. Also note, OSHA requires monthly checks on compressors.
WI – Elevators This work item is for removal and replacement of inoperative elevators or lifts up to about 3 stories high, or for installation of elevators in multi-floor buildings where required for accessibility. Unit of measure is each. Typical life expectancy – 50 years.
Elevators Elevators require annual inspection by the state. Check to assure that tags are in place indicating that this is happening. Might check to assure oil reservoirs and piping is not leaking. Check to assure any phone lines are functional.
Custom Elevators The elevator descending down a 216 deep shaft into Blanchard Springs Caverns on the Ozark NF would be a custom item
WI – Lab Fume Hoods Item is for removal and replacement of worn out fume or inoperative fume hoods Sashes may be worn out, inoperative, or could be needed to improve energy efficiency Unit of measure – each Typical life expectancy – 30 years Note: OSHA requires annual inspection of face velocity and overall function – should be tagged indicate.
Exhaust Fans Includes bathroom exhaust fans as well as exhaust fans in shop buildings, residential kitchen hoods, and fans in attics, warehouses, and garages Use custom work item for these Life expectancy – 10 years Typically guards are needed over fans such as this for safety sake. Sometimes they have been removed and never replaced again.
Ductwork Sheet metal ducts – galvanized or aluminum - usually last the life of the building Insulation, duct cement and/or taping is often compromised, however Flex-ducts may sag over the years if not well supported Duct cleaning may be needed, especially in dirty and/or dusty environments Flex-duct may collapse if not properly supported.
Inspecting Electrical Systems
What to Look for When Inspecting Electrical Systems Transformers and Metering Equipment Service Masts (pulling away from building) Switchboards Power and Lighting Panels Disconnects Conduit & Wiring Light Fixtures Emergency Light Fixtures, Exit Signs Gensets
WI – Main Service Switchgear This work item covers removal and replacement of obsolete or worn out metering and service equipment up to 1200 amps and 600 volts Unit of measure is each Typical situations are corroded or undersized equipment or fuses and breakers no longer available Typical life expectancy, 20 years. Note: transformer not included.
WI – Disconnects May be fused or non-fused, or enclosed circuit breakers (single CB in a cabinet) Intended to serve a single piece of equipment Should be within sight of the equipment they serve Unit of measure is each Normal service life – 25 years
WI – Electrical Panels Removal and replacement of load centers or lighting and equipment panels, single or 3 phase up to 42 spaces, 400 ampere rating May need replacement due to rust and corrosion, growth of load being served or obsolescence Unit of measure – each Typical life expectancy 30 years
Electrical Panels Check to assure knockouts are fitted with appropriate covers, not open Check to assure circuits are properly labeled After about 20 years electrical connections should be checked and re-tightened to the appropriate torque by a licensed electrician If a thermography unit is available test to assure there are no hot spots in the unit
WI – Light Fixtures Removal and replacement of broken light fixtures, incandescent, fluorescent, HID, interior or exterior Change-out may be needed to increase system efficiency, going from magnetic to electronic ballasts, for example Unit of measure is each Typical life expectancy is 20 years
Light Fixtures Look to assure the prismatic lenses are in place, not yellowed, wiring channel covers are in place, unlike this fixture Many times missing guards need replacing for safety sake (O&M item) Re-lamping is also an O&M item
WI – Emergency Light Fixtures Includes removing and replacing obsolete or inoperative emergency light fixtures and exit signs Fluorescent, LED or photo- luminescent May need to replace to improve efficiency Unit of measure is each Typical life expectancy of 20 years
Inspecting Special Systems and Equipment
WI – Fire/Security Alarm System Removal and replacement of obsolete or inoperative systems You might discover that changes in occupancies like this that require fire alarms, smoke detectors, etc. These systems should be tested during inspection Unit of measure – each system Typical system life – 20 years
Fire Alarm System (cont.) The item covers the complete system, including control panels, fire alarms, smoke detectors, etc. Combination fire alarm/burglar alarm systems are typical
WI – Lightning Protection Systems Removal and replacement of complete system - lightning rods, down conductors, bonding clamps, grounding electrodes Particularly important in rural/remote areas Need NFPA 780 master label Unit of measure – each system Typical system life expectancy 25 years
Lightning Protection Systems For protection of the structure, not the electronic equipment in it Systems to protect electronic equipment from lightning surges is separate, and very expensive NFPA 780 has a flow chart used to guide the decision whether or not this system is needed Alternative systems (non-NFPA labeled) intended to prevent lightning strikes, etc.) are highly advertised, but are not proven to be effective, therefore are not recommended
WI – Fire Sprinkler Systems Removal and replacement of inoperative systems, as well as installation of new systems where required Fire sprinkler systems should strongly be considered to protect sleeping quarters, historic structures, etc. Variety of NFPA standards apply – NFPA 13, 13D, 13R, 101, 914 Unit of measure is per square feet of floor space protected Life expectancy is 40 years Note: Existing systems should be checked to make sure they have been tested on a regular basis.
Seedling Coolers Seedling coolers are composed of insulated housing and a packaged refrigeration unit Most common need is for replacement of the refrigeration unit at about 15 years Note: out of the building, seedling coolers might be considered as personal, not real property.
Fire Towers Fire towers have historically been used for spotting fires Towers are often converted for recreation use or as historic displays Typical maintenance issues relate to the structural components or to lightning protection and grounding
Greenhouses Greenhouse support systems typically last about 20 years Glazing typically needs to be replaced after about 10 years Record by square feet of glazing Eventually we can build a cost history on items such as this
Log Structures Look for rotten sills, sagging ridge beams, etc. Usually involves extensive restoration work, which might be as much as the CRV Life of log structures varies from 20 to 50 years depending upon climate before after
Other Required Items to Consider Item ADA/ABA Mitigation (Note: the interior accessibility portion is explained previously in the section on interiors; ramps are covered under Work Item ) Item Lead-Based Paint and Asbestos Mitigation Item Environmental Mitigation Custom work items are needed to cover this work, as there are no standard work items that can reasonably be used to represent them
Other Operations & Maintenance Issues Termites Rats, Mice, Vermin Mold Damage Fire Wise Maintenance Hurricane Damage Earthquake/Seismic Activity Winter Damage Building Demolition
Protection from Termites Mud tube indicates infestation has occurred.
Hanta Virus Need to be aware of this risk when entering buildings that have been shut up for winter, or which might be rodent infested Bigger threat in the West Visit medical.smis.doi.gov/ihtopi cs.smis.doi.gov.html and us/toolbox/haz/hanta.htm for additional info medical.smis.doi.gov/ihtopi cs.smis.doi.gov.html us/toolbox/haz/hanta.htm
Mold Prevention Mold requires moisture and nutrition, such as cellulose in order to flourish Best prevented by maintaining low humidity (less than 50%), repairing leaks in roofs & plumbing in a timely fashion For more info visit HA-Mold- Recommendations.pdf or ograms/facilities/sus_green/mol d.htm. HA-Mold- Recommendations.pdf ograms/facilities/sus_green/mol d.htm
Fire Wise Maintenance Practices to prevent buildings from catching on fire Example: Preventing combustibles from getting up against buildings For more info visit:
Winter Issues Ice & snow dam buildup on the roof – over entrances Snow build up behind flues Visit fed.us/snow_load/ fed.us/snow_load/ for site-specific snow load information