Presentation on theme: "UNIT 31 HOME ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. NEC NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE The National electrical code is a publication sponsored by the National Fire Protection Association."— Presentation transcript:
UNIT 31 HOME ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
NEC NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE The National electrical code is a publication sponsored by the National Fire Protection Association.
The NEC book includes recommendations and guidelines on wiring materials and methods. The NEC is updated every three years.
Electric Service Entrance Is the part of the system that extends from electric companys last transformer, to the breaker box of a house. service dropIf the service runs above ground it is called a service drop. service lateralIf the service runs underground it is called a service lateral.
Transformer on a pole S.E. Cable Used for the Service Drop
HLPs Step down transformer service lateral This transformer is used to supply a service lateral
An electric service generally contains SEA service entrance cable (SE cable) A watthour meter Load centerAnd a breaker box. (Load center)
Service entrance cable in conduit service lateral Watthour Meter Breaker Box This conduit contains the wire the ties the Neutral Bus to the Ground Rod.
THREE-WIRE SERVICE A three wire service is used in order to supply two different voltages ( ). Hot NeutralThe SE cable has two current carrying conductors called ( Hot ) wires, and one noncurrent carrying conductor called ( Neutral ). Hot wires are insulated, the neutral may be bare.
Neutral Bus Bar The White Neutral wire and the Bare Ground wire are usually tied to the Neutral Bus Bar
Hot wires Neutral wire
Why supply two different voltages??? $$$$$$$$$$$$ It is cheaper to operate large amperage loads on 240 volts than 120 volts
Example: An electric water heater uses 5500W heating elements. Remembering I = P/E 5500/120 = A 5500/240 = A
The lower current value is important for two reasons costThe cost of installation, (smaller wire) is cheaper. Power lossPower loss is directly proportional to the square of the current!!!
The Watthour Meter Records the amount energy used.
The Load Center Breaker BoxUsually called a Breaker Box fuse boxCould be a fuse box Contains the main disconnect, and usually several breakers or fuses. Distributes the electricity to the many branch circuits throughout the building.
The Service Ground Is there to reduce the chance of shock and to protect against lightning. The neutral wire of the SE cable is connected to a eight foot copper rod, driven into the ground eight foot deep. The ground rod is connected to the neutral bus bar in the breaker box.
BRANCH CIRCUITS Branch circuits distribute the electricity from the breaker box to the different rooms of the building.
Individual Branch Circuits 240V Larger Amperage Small Appliance Branch Circuits 20 Amp General Purpose Branch Circuits 15 or 20 Amp
There are three types of branch circuits. General-Purpose Small-Appliance Individual
GENERAL-PURPOSE CIRCUITS Are used for lighting and outlets. Things like radios, TVs, and small appliances (not kitchen appliances).
SMALL-APPLIANCE CIRCUITS kitchen onlyAre dedicated for the kitchen only. These outlets are for refrigerators, toasters, coffee makers, and any other of the 10,000appliances that are found in our kitchens.
INDIVIDUAL CICRUITS Are used for only one piece of equipment (dryer, water heater, AC, and heater) These loads are generally 240 volt loads. A clothes washer and dish washer are only 120 volt loads but are require to be on an individual circuit.
Wiring Branch circuits is usually done with these materials… Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Armored Cable Electrical Metallic Tubing
Nonmetallic Sheathed cable ( ROMEX ) NM cable is used for all kinds of indoor wiring. notCan not be exposed to sunlight, buried underground, in cement,or plaster. Most common sizes are 14 And 12 AWG
Romex A style of wire that has two or three insulated conductors inside an outer cover of insulation called a sheath It may or my not have a ground wire, which is usually bare( no insulation ) 12/2, would indicate that there are 2 # 12 AWG wires in the cable. 14/3wg, would indicate the there are 3 # 14 AWG wires in the cable as well as a ground wire.
Neutral wire Hot wire Ground wire Sheathing
Armored Cable In armored cable, the insulated wires are in a flexible metal sheath.
GFCI receptacle A GFCI work by detecting the amount of current passing through the HOT wire and comparing the current to coming back on the Neutral wire. If as little as 5mA-7mA does not return on the neutral the GFCI will trip and must be reset.
The minimum length of 6 inches individual wire is exposed
A little slack in the Romex cable is a good thing…. Tape covering the splice in the Hot wire.
Always curl the hook of a wire to be terminated under a screw head in the same direction as the screw tightens.
The pig tail splice of the ground wires are tightly twisted and has 4 to 5 twist in the first inch.
This little trick (at the end of the White wire) will help keep the braided wire bundled tightly and not spread out from underneath the screw head.
This is how we terminate 2 different wires under 1 screw head. This is commonly called a pigtail splice
Natural Buss Bar Termination block for incoming voltage