# UNIT 31 HOME ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

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UNIT 31 HOME ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

NEC NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE
The National electrical code is a publication sponsored by the National Fire Protection Association.

The NEC book includes recommendations and guidelines on wiring materials and methods.
The NEC is updated every three years.

Electric Service Entrance
Is the part of the system that extends from electric company’s last transformer, to the breaker box of a house. If the service runs above ground it is called a service drop. If the service runs underground it is called a service lateral.

Transformer on a pole S.E. Cable Used for the Service Drop

HLP’s Step down transformer
This transformer is used to supply a service lateral

An electric service generally contains
A service entrance cable (SE cable) A watthour meter And a breaker box. (Load center)

Service entrance cable in conduit
Watthour Meter Breaker Box Service entrance cable in conduit service lateral This conduit contains the wire the ties the Neutral Bus to the Ground Rod.

THREE-WIRE SERVICE A three wire service is used in order to supply two different voltages ( ). The SE cable has two current carrying conductors called ( Hot ) wires, and one noncurrent carrying conductor called ( Neutral ). Hot wires are insulated, the neutral may be bare.

The White Neutral wire and the Bare Ground wire are usually tied to the Neutral Bus Bar

Neutral wire Hot wires

Why supply two different voltages???
\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$ It is cheaper to operate large amperage loads on 240 volts than 120 volts

Example: An electric water heater uses 5500W heating elements.
Remembering I = P/E 5500/120 = A 5500/240 = A

The lower current value is important for two reasons
The cost of installation, (smaller wire) is cheaper. Power loss is directly proportional to the square of the current!!!

The Watthour Meter Records the amount energy used.

The Load Center Usually called a Breaker Box Could be a fuse box
Contains the main disconnect, and usually several breakers or fuses. Distributes the electricity to the many branch circuits throughout the building.

The Service Ground Is there to reduce the chance of shock and to protect against lightning. The neutral wire of the SE cable is connected to a eight foot copper rod, driven into the ground eight foot deep. The ground rod is connected to the neutral bus bar in the breaker box.

BRANCH CIRCUITS Branch circuits distribute the electricity from the breaker box to the different rooms of the building.

General Purpose Branch Circuits
15 or 20 Amp Individual Branch Circuits 240V Larger Amperage Small Appliance Branch Circuits 20 Amp

There are three types of branch circuits.
General-Purpose Small-Appliance Individual

GENERAL-PURPOSE CIRCUITS
Are used for lighting and outlets. Things like radios, TV’s, and small appliances (not kitchen appliances).

SMALL-APPLIANCE CIRCUITS
Are dedicated for the kitchen only. These outlets are for refrigerators, toasters, coffee makers, and any other of the 10,000 appliances that are found in our kitchens.

INDIVIDUAL CICRUITS Are used for only one piece of equipment (dryer, water heater, AC, and heater) These loads are generally 240 volt loads. A clothes washer and dish washer are only 120 volt loads but are require to be on an individual circuit.

Wiring Branch circuits is usually done with these materials…
Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Armored Cable Electrical Metallic Tubing

Nonmetallic Sheathed cable ( ROMEX )
NM cable is used for all kinds of indoor wiring. Can not be exposed to sunlight, buried underground, in cement,or plaster. Most common sizes are 14 And 12 AWG

Romex A style of wire that has two or three insulated conductors inside an outer cover of insulation called a sheath It may or my not have a ground wire, which is usually bare( no insulation ) 12/2, would indicate that there are 2 # 12 AWG wires in the cable. 14/3wg, would indicate the there are 3 # 14 AWG wires in the cable as well as a ground wire.

Neutral wire Hot wire Ground wire Sheathing

Armored Cable In armored cable, the insulated wires are in a flexible metal sheath.

Metal sheath Hot wire Neutral wire Ground wire

Weather-tight Flex conduit
PVC conduit Safety Disconnect Weather-tight Flex conduit

Electrical Metallic Tubing
Known as EMT Is a thin wall metal pipe in which wires are pulled into, for protection while running through a building or outside the building.

WIRING DEVICES Switch boxes Junction boxes Connectors Wire nuts

Wiring devices are used to provide the safe, convenient, and reliable use and control of electricity. All switches, receptacles, and splicing must be done or mounted in boxes.

Switch box Junction box Cable connector Switch Conduit connector Receptacle Locknut

GFCI receptacle A GFCI work by detecting the amount of current passing through the HOT wire and comparing the current to coming back on the Neutral wire. If as little as 5mA-7mA does not return on the neutral the GFCI will trip and must be reset.

The minimum length of 6 inches individual wire is exposed

A little slack in the Romex cable is a good thing….
Tape covering the splice in the Hot wire.

Always curl the hook of a wire to be terminated under a screw head in the same direction as the screw tightens.

The pig tail splice of the ground wires are tightly twisted and has 4 to 5 twist in the first inch.

This little trick (at the end of the White wire) will help keep the braided wire bundled tightly and not spread out from underneath the screw head.

This is how we terminate 2 different wires under 1 screw head
This is how we terminate 2 different wires under 1 screw head. This is commonly called a pigtail splice

Termination block for incoming voltage
Natural Buss Bar

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