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United States Experience: Hazardous Waste Combustion US Standards Controls Emissions.

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Presentation on theme: "United States Experience: Hazardous Waste Combustion US Standards Controls Emissions."— Presentation transcript:

1 United States Experience: Hazardous Waste Combustion US Standards Controls Emissions

2 US Standards EPA promulgated dioxin and furan standards, pursuant to the authority of section 112(d) of the CAA, for the following types of combustion devices that burn hazardous waste (as defined in 40 CFR 261.3): –On-site Incinerators –Commercial Incinerators –Cement Kilns –Lightweight Aggregate Kilns –Solid Fuel Boilers –Liquid Fuel Boilers –Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces Emission standards were promulgated on October 12, 2005 (70 FR 59402) and are codified in 40 CFR parts thru

3 US Standards Current Status: –Several petitions for judicial review of the October 12, 2005 rule were filed with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (the Court). Litigation proceedings are currently stayed until July 7, –EPA indicated in a Federal Register notice published on September 27, 2007 that several emissions standards promulgated in the October 2005 rule may need to be reexamined in a future rulemaking as a result of recent opinions issued by the Court construing section 112(d) of the CAA. 72 FR While the standards identified in the September 2007 notice were part of a preliminary determination subject to public comment, EPA intends to issue its final determination by July 7, The dioxin and furan standards for solid fuel boilers, liquid fuel boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid production furnaces were identified as potentially needing to be reexamined in the September 2007 notice. For more information, contact: Mr. Frank Behan of EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Environmental Response at (703) or

4 Emission Limits Type of CombustorD/F Emission Standard (ng TEQ/dscm) Incinerators Sources equipped w/ either a waste heat boiler or dry air pollution control system 0.20; or 0.40 provided that the combustion gas temperature at the inlet to the initial particulate matter control device is 400°F or lower All other incinerators0.40 Cement Kilns 0.20; or 0.40 provided that the combustion gas temperature at the inlet to the initial particulate matter control device is 400°F or lower Lightweight Aggregate Kilns 0.20; or Rapid quench of the combustion gas temperature at the exit of the last combustion chamber to 400°F or lower Solid Fuel BoilersEither 100 ppmv carbon monoxide or 10 ppmv hydrocarbons Liquid Fuel Boilers Sources equipped w/ a dry air pollution control system 0.40 All other liquid fuel boilersEither 100 ppmv carbon monoxide or 10 ppmv hydrocarbons HCl Production FurnacesEither 100 ppmv carbon monoxide or 10 ppmv hydrocarbons Existing source standards Note: all standards are corrected to 7% oxygen

5 Emission Limits New source standards Note: all standards are corrected to 7% oxygen Type of CombustorD/F Emission Standard (ng TEQ/dscm) Incinerators Sources equipped w/ either a waste heat boiler or dry air pollution control system 0.11 All other incinerators0.20 Cement Kilns 0.20; or 0.40 provided that the combustion gas temperature at the inlet to the initial particulate matter control device is 400°F or lower Lightweight Aggregate Kilns 0.20; or Rapid quench of the combustion gas temperature at the exit of the last combustion chamber to 400°F or lower Solid Fuel BoilersEither 100 ppmv carbon monoxide or 10 ppmv hydrocarbons Liquid Fuel Boilers Sources equipped w/ a dry air pollution control system 0.40 All other liquid fuel boilersEither 100 ppmv carbon monoxide or 10 ppmv hydrocarbons HCl Production FurnacesEither 100 ppmv carbon monoxide or 10 ppmv hydrocarbons

6 Controls Sources are not required to use certain control technologies to achieve the dioxin and furan emission standards. Sources can use any means to achieve the standards. Several incinerators have installed activated carbon injection or carbon bed systems to control dioxin and furans (and other air toxics such as mercury) Many combustors that use dry air pollution control systems (e.g., fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators) limit the gas temperature at the inlet to the particulate matter control device to levels that help inhibit the formation reactions of dioxin and furans. For these control systems, dioxin and furans are formed on particles entrained in the control device by surface-catalyzed reactions where the particulate matter provides the reaction surface.

7 US Hazardous Waste Combustor Emissions * Source of data: 2002 estimate for hazardous waste kilns is from hazardous waste incineration rule Type of CombustorNumber of Combustors in /2004Emissions (g TEQ WHO98/yr)* On-site Incinerators15 units3.1 Commercial Incinerators69 units18.5 Cement Kilns23 units18.6 Lightweight Aggregate Kilns7 units30 Solid Fuel Boilers12 units0.9 Liquid Fuel Boilers83 units1.5 Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces 10 units0.2

8 Summary and Conclusions US standards have specific dioxin/furans limits.


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