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Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Incineration & landfilling Håkan Jönsson Professor Swedish University of Agricultural.

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Presentation on theme: "Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Incineration & landfilling Håkan Jönsson Professor Swedish University of Agricultural."— Presentation transcript:

1 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Incineration & landfilling Håkan Jönsson Professor Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

2 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Waste incineration Renewable fuel: 80-90% of Swedish household waste is renewable (incineration tax assumed 87.4%) Heating value: 2,5-3,2-4 kWh/kg, 9-11,5-14 MJ/kg Heterogeneous ”dirty” fuel – Extensive flue gas cleaning necessary – Large plants Storage needed but difficult – Even production over the year – Difficult when biowaste is included

3 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Waste incineration 2008 –29 incineration plants for household waste, 4.6 Mton/yr, of which 2.3 Mton/yr household waste Sizes; > /yr 7 plants (Sthlm, Gbg, Lin, Mö, Stje, Svall, Ua), /yr 4 plants and < /yr 18 plants –Energy recovery 12.2 TWh heat (29% of district heating) & 1.5 TWh electricity (1% of electricity use) –Mass decreases by 75%, volume by 90%. Residues: slag 20%, fly ash 3-5% (hazardous waste) Initially introduced for mass and volume reduction

4 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Air emissions Substance Reduction Particles,ton % HCl, ton % SOx, ton % NOx, ton % Hg, kg % Cd, kg (Cd+Tl) 21 (Cd+Tl) 6 (Cd+Tl) >98% Pb, kg % Dioxins, g ,899%

5 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology GRAABS plant, Gothenburg

6 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Waste incinerator - Uganda

7 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology An advanced incineration system Fig: Persson, 2005

8 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Flue gas - pollutants Particles –Filter – electrostatic and/or textile filters NO x Fee 50 SEK/kg NO x (Total 688 milj SEK) –Ammonia injection: 4 NH NO -> 5 N H 2 O; 4 NH NO +O 2 -> 4 N H 2 O –In furnace SNCR (Selctive Non-Cathalytic Reduction – °C, 40-60% reduction) –After furnace SCR (Selective Cathalytic Reduction – °C, 70-90% reduction) HCl –Alkaline treatment (lime) SO x –Alkaline treatment (lime) Heavy metals –Removed with particles and acids Dioxin –Attaches to active C, removed with particles at low temperature

9 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Flue gas cleaning - filters Cyclone Electro filter Textile filter (slangfilter) Scrubber Ill: Niro A/S

10 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Important parameters Temperature Retention time Oxygen Turbulence Fig: Persson, 2005

11 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Sources of dioxin in Sweden Fig: Persson, 2005

12 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Incineration plants Grate furnaces (Rosterpannor) –Most common –accepts large “particles” –sensitive for varying energy content –hard to control – much fuel in system –grates need water cooling if waste is dry Fluidised bed roaster (Fluidbäddpanna) –Easier to control and adjust to fuel –Shreading necessary - (max 10 cm) Ill: Berman & Dille, Westinghouse Fluidised bed roaster

13 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology A modern incineration plant Fig: Persson, 2005

14 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Flue gas cleaning Fig: Persson, 2005

15 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Incineration hazardous waste Fig: Persson, 2005

16 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Landfill

17 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology The different stages of a landfill Fig: Persson, 2005

18 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Water flows Fig: Persson, 2005

19 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Land fill and water flows Fig: Persson, 2005

20 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Requirements on liner Tid Flöde 200 år <5 l/m2, år 50 år <50 l/m2, år 1 år Fig: Persson, 2005

21 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Hydrological considerations Fig: Persson, 2005

22 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Collection of landfill gas 2003: 414 GWh to district heating, 26 WGWh electricity and 60 GWh not used. Fig: Persson, 2005

23 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology A well managed sanitary landfill Fig: Persson, 2005

24 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Top and bottom liner Fig: Persson, 2005

25 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Liners - hazardous waste Fig: Persson, 2005

26 Håkan JönssonDepartment of Energy and Technology Landfill –biowaste banned EU Directive fully implemented 2008 Containment of waste Biowaste goes anaerobic Org C -> CH 4 & CO 2 –Greenhouse gas, 50% collected (optimistic figure), 10% oxidised –Risk of fire Sinking – top liner damaged – more leachate Nutrients and heavy metals leaches Aim: totally sealed


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