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Electrical wiring presented by Łukasz Wiergowski and Mariusz Cyganek Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to carry electricity,

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Presentation on theme: "Electrical wiring presented by Łukasz Wiergowski and Mariusz Cyganek Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to carry electricity,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Electrical wiring presented by Łukasz Wiergowski and Mariusz Cyganek Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to carry electricity, and associated devices. This presentation describes general aspects of electrical wiring as used to provide power in buildings and structures, commonly referred to as building wiring and describe common features of electrical wiring that may apply worldwide. Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to carry electricity, and associated devices. This presentation describes general aspects of electrical wiring as used to provide power in buildings and structures, commonly referred to as building wiring and describe common features of electrical wiring that may apply worldwide.

2 Wiring safety codes Wiring safety codes are intended to protect people and property from electrical shock and fire hazards. Regulations may be established by city, county, provincial/state or national legislation, usually by adopting a model code (with or without local amendments) produced by a technical standards-setting organization, or by a national standard electrical code. Wiring safety codes are intended to protect people and property from electrical shock and fire hazards. Regulations may be established by city, county, provincial/state or national legislation, usually by adopting a model code (with or without local amendments) produced by a technical standards-setting organization, or by a national standard electrical code.

3 Colour code To enable wires to be easily and safely identified, all common wiring safety codes mandate a colour scheme for the insulation on power conductors. In a typical electrical code, some colour coding is mandatory, while some may be optional. Many local rules and exceptions exist. Older installations vary in colour codes, and colours may shift with insulation exposure to heat, light, and ageing. To enable wires to be easily and safely identified, all common wiring safety codes mandate a colour scheme for the insulation on power conductors. In a typical electrical code, some colour coding is mandatory, while some may be optional. Many local rules and exceptions exist. Older installations vary in colour codes, and colours may shift with insulation exposure to heat, light, and ageing. Many electrical codes now recognize (or even require) the use of wire covered with green insulation, additionally marked with a prominent yellow stripe, for safety grounding (earthing) connections. This growing international standard was adopted for its distinctive appearance, to reduce the likelihood of dangerous confusion of safety grounding wires with other electrical functions, especially by persons affected by red-green colour blindness. Many electrical codes now recognize (or even require) the use of wire covered with green insulation, additionally marked with a prominent yellow stripe, for safety grounding (earthing) connections. This growing international standard was adopted for its distinctive appearance, to reduce the likelihood of dangerous confusion of safety grounding wires with other electrical functions, especially by persons affected by red-green colour blindness.

4 Wiring methods Materials for wiring interior electrical systems in buildings vary depending on: Materials for wiring interior electrical systems in buildings vary depending on: Intended use and amount of power demand on the circuit Intended use and amount of power demand on the circuit Type of occupancy and size of the building Type of occupancy and size of the building National and local regulations National and local regulations Environment in which the wiring must operate. Environment in which the wiring must operate. Wiring systems in a single family home or duplex, for example, are simple, with relatively low power requirements, infrequent changes to the building structure and layout, usually with dry, moderate temperature, and non- corrosive environmental conditions. In a light commercial environment, more frequent wiring changes can be expected, large apparatus may be installed, and special conditions of heat or moisture may apply. Heavy industries have more demanding wiring requirements, such as very large currents and higher voltages, frequent changes of equipment layout, corrosive, or wet or explosive atmospheres. In facilities that handle flammable gases or liquids, special rules may govern the installation and wiring of electrical equipment in hazardous areas. Wiring systems in a single family home or duplex, for example, are simple, with relatively low power requirements, infrequent changes to the building structure and layout, usually with dry, moderate temperature, and non- corrosive environmental conditions. In a light commercial environment, more frequent wiring changes can be expected, large apparatus may be installed, and special conditions of heat or moisture may apply. Heavy industries have more demanding wiring requirements, such as very large currents and higher voltages, frequent changes of equipment layout, corrosive, or wet or explosive atmospheres. In facilities that handle flammable gases or liquids, special rules may govern the installation and wiring of electrical equipment in hazardous areas.

5 Cables Armoured cables with two rubber-insulated conductors in a flexible metal sheath were used as early as 1906, and were considered at the time a better method than open knob-and-tube wiring, although much more expensive. Armoured cables with two rubber-insulated conductors in a flexible metal sheath were used as early as 1906, and were considered at the time a better method than open knob-and-tube wiring, although much more expensive. The first polymer-insulated cables for building wiring were introduced in These were two or more solid copper electrical wires with rubber insulation, plus woven cotton cloth over each conductor for protection of the insulation, with an overall woven jacket, usually impregnated with tar as a protection from moisture. Waxed paper was used as a filler and separator. The first polymer-insulated cables for building wiring were introduced in These were two or more solid copper electrical wires with rubber insulation, plus woven cotton cloth over each conductor for protection of the insulation, with an overall woven jacket, usually impregnated with tar as a protection from moisture. Waxed paper was used as a filler and separator.cables Over time, rubber-insulated cables become brittle because of exposure to atmospheric oxygen, so they must be handled with care, and are usually replaced during renovations. When switches, outlets or light fixtures are replaced, the mere act of tightening connections may cause hardened insulation to flake off the conductors. Rubber insulation further inside the cable often is in better condition than the insulation exposed at connections, due to reduced exposure to oxygen. Over time, rubber-insulated cables become brittle because of exposure to atmospheric oxygen, so they must be handled with care, and are usually replaced during renovations. When switches, outlets or light fixtures are replaced, the mere act of tightening connections may cause hardened insulation to flake off the conductors. Rubber insulation further inside the cable often is in better condition than the insulation exposed at connections, due to reduced exposure to oxygen.

6 Aluminium conductors Aluminium wire was common in North American residential wiring from the late 1960s to mid 1970s due to the rising cost of copper. Because of its greater resistivity, aluminium wiring requires larger conductors than copper. For instance, instead of 14 AWG (American wire gauge) for most lighting circuits, aluminium wiring would be 12 AWG on a typical 15 ampere circuit, though local building codes may vary. Aluminium wire was common in North American residential wiring from the late 1960s to mid 1970s due to the rising cost of copper. Because of its greater resistivity, aluminium wiring requires larger conductors than copper. For instance, instead of 14 AWG (American wire gauge) for most lighting circuits, aluminium wiring would be 12 AWG on a typical 15 ampere circuit, though local building codes may vary. Aluminium conductors were originally indiscriminately used with wiring devices intended for copper conductors. This practice was found to cause defective connections unless het aluminium was one of a special alloy, or all devices breakers, switches, receptacles, splice connectors, wire nuts, etc. were specially designed for the purpose. These special designs address problems with junctions between dissimilar metals, oxidation on metal surfaces, and mechanical effects that occur as different metals expand at different rates with increases in temperature. Aluminium conductors were originally indiscriminately used with wiring devices intended for copper conductors. This practice was found to cause defective connections unless het aluminium was one of a special alloy, or all devices breakers, switches, receptacles, splice connectors, wire nuts, etc. were specially designed for the purpose. These special designs address problems with junctions between dissimilar metals, oxidation on metal surfaces, and mechanical effects that occur as different metals expand at different rates with increases in temperature.

7 The project is realized with the finance support of the European Commission within the "Longlife learning program". The presentation was made as a result of the Leonardo da Vinci project titled "Your future career prospects" The presentation was made as a result of the Leonardo da Vinci project titled "Your future career prospects" carried out in "Zespół Szkół Zawodowych" no 3 in Katowice between 2011 and in Katowice between 2011 and The publication reflects the standpoint of the authors only and neither the European Commission nor the National Agency bear responsibility for the essential contents included in the presentation and for the way of using the enclosed information.

8 Made by Łukasz Wiergowski and Mariusz Cyganek school year 2011/2012


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