Presentation on theme: "High Power PoE & Extended Distance Design Considerations."— Presentation transcript:
High Power PoE & Extended Distance Design Considerations
Established in 1993 as a Design House in San Diego, CA Incorporated in 1997 in the State of California History : Products are designed in the USA and manufactured in both the USA and China. Products origin: Vigitron Support: What we offer that our competitors do not: Vigitron Support: What we offer that our competitors do not: Educational white papers Application notes Design center support Project requirements which provide a systematic layout and bill of materials Customizable products to meet specific application requirements Lifetime warranty + 3 Years Testing to Network and Traffic Certification Standards Individual Camera manufacturing certification Made in America- Manufactured to local requirements Exceptional & responsive customer service Repetitive
Bandwidth/Packet size and Testing TestTest Type Bandwidth(Mbps)PortTxPacketsRxPacketsTxPPSRxPPSTxBPSRxBPSRxPayload ErrorsLatency (us) 3Reference Reference % NEMA-TS 2 Hardened Temperature Test -40 to +75C Tested for max power consumption in highest operating modes Distances are noted by Vigitron and used as part of Vigitrons design Center service
Vigitron Support: What we offer that our competitors do not? White Papers Application Notes Design Center Services
Why Extended Distance Target Applications Why Extended Distance Target Applications 1.Existing analog installations converting to IP with coax cable runs between 750 and 1000 feet. A.Note the expense of: 1.Removing coax cable. 2.Installing UTP cable. 3.In some cases licenses are required. 4.Labor can run between $400 to $1000. Removing coax cables and installing UTP still does not address the 328 feet signal and PoE transmission limitation. 2.Fiber: B. Note the expenses of: 1. Cost of fiber transmitter and receiver. 2. Cost of fiber cable. 3. Fiber does not transmit PoE! 3. UTP Cable is limited to 100m (328 feet ) distances) and many security applications require longer distances
PoE is defined as Power over Ethernet - the ability to transmit power from a source to a destination over copper wire. There are three types of PoE IEEE 802.3af (15.4 Watts IEEE 802.3at (30 Watts) PoE++ (60 Watts) The resulting power provided to the camera is a function of: 1) Source power 2) Source Voltage 3) Cable loss What is PoE? What are the types of PoE?
The standard distance used to determine the power available at the Powered Device is 100 meters /328 feet
The are three steps in PoE operation: 1.The Power Source Equipment (PSE) sends a Detection pulse to the Powered Device (PD). The PD is off at this point but presents a resistance value on its input to let the PSE know that there is a valid PD at the end of the wire. 2.The PSE sends a Classification pulse to the PD. The PD is still off but presents a resistance value on its input port based on the required Power Class. This way the PSE knows how much power to dedicate to this PD which becomes its limit. 3.The PSE turns on the power to PD. If a no-current or over current condition happens the PSE will shut down power to protect itself and the PD. This is normally the case… PSE 100 m (328 ft.) UTP How does PoE work? PD
ClassPower at PD (W) Class Description 00.44–12.94 Classification unimplemented 10.44–3.84Very Low power 23.84–6.49Low power 36.49–12.95Mid power The IEEE af was the first PoE standard and included four power classes. These classes are defined by the level of power provided to the PD. In CCTV applications a PD is a camera. In order to achieve these power levels at the camera, the PSE must have enough power to account for the power losses over wire. PSE Source (15.4 W) PD Power (12.95 W) What is IEEE 802.3af? Wire Power Loss 100 m (328 ft.) UTP This is the power required at the camera
Individual Voltage levels must be maintained to wake-up the Camera: 37 volts min. for 802.3af 42.5 volts min. for 802.3at AT has Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is the same as 802.3af. Type 2 requires two pulses in phase the first wakes up the camera the second identifies it as Class 4 (802.3at)
This PoE standard was created to meet the growing power demands of telephone systems, IP security cameras and networking equipment. PSE Source (34.20W) PD Power (25.5W) Unlike 802.3af, 802.3at can be found in four different standards: Cisco: used for Ciscos telephone systems) Pre-standard: This is similar to Cisco, but left open for established power outputs. Type 1: This functions similar to 802.3af but established a power output of 30 watts. Type 2: Maintained the power output of 30 watts but used a two-pulse wake up. This resulted from delays in standard committees achieving agreement on one standard and the rush from chip manufacturers to be the first to market. Even today it is difficult to determine what standard a product adheres to. Wire Power Loss 100 m (328 ft.) UTP What is IEEE at?
Modern PoE cameras require more power than you might expect Many PoE IP cameras require additional power for day/night, auto back focus and auto iris lens operations. - These additional power requirements are far greater than the regular power required for video. - When activated, these functions will surge requiring more power than used under normal operation. To compensate for higher power many IP camera manufacturers are reclassifying there camera power requirements to reflect: - Class 0 for 802.3af requiring source power between 0 and 15.4 W. - Making a general statement for 802.3at which can mean any power requirement between 15 W to 30 W. Why Extended distance High-Power solutions are Required?
The Effect of PoE Power Surges Resting power Surge power New Power Level Day ModeLED On Day/Night filter On- LED On 5 watts6 watts 10 watts The camera manufacturer specifies the camera at 6 watts which is Class 2, but the surge requires Class 3 power. The result is a port power shut down
ClassPower at PD (W) Class Description 00.44–12.94 Classification unimplemented 10.44–3.84Very Low power 23.84–6.49Low power 36.49–12.95Mid power Many camera manufacturers have moved their power requirements from Class 2 at 6.49 to Class 0/Class 3 in order to protect themselves from power surges for auxiliary functions When a camera is specified as Class 0 the power at the camera location must achieve watts. If a camera is specified at Class 4 or 802.3at you must supply 25.5 watts at the camera location. This is the power required at the camera location
Why 60 W PoE power is needed: Many new camera installations require power levels higher than 802.3at, which is limited at approximately 30 watts. The 60W solutions are basically 802.3at X 2 These cameras use higher power for: Faster dome speeds (Guard tours) Heaters Blowers IR Illuminators
How 60 watts operates Generally Cat 5 cabling will be restricted to a amperage handling capacity of.75 amps or 1.5 amps per-pair. This is the primary Power limitations. As such camera manufacturers requiring 60 watts use 802.3at X 2. This requires the use of 8 cable pairs and 2 PDs in the camera. Both PDs must respond in the same way in order to operate. For a 60 watt solution the PoE operates as if it where powering two separate 802.3at cameras. For a 60 watt source to work with Axis cameras it must be able to recognize two PDs This also limits 60 watt solutions to UTP Cat cable as coax only yields one wire pair
What are the challenges in Providing PoE for IP Cameras? Challenges for Cameras : Even if your camera specification indicates a certain power class more power may actually require more Additional camera functions require additional power levels over that of normal operating conditions. For PoE systems where PSE /PD communications is established at a certain class level, additional power requirements can be interpreted as dangerous and result in PSE power shut downs. Camera manufacturers do not often state full power requirements or for 802.3af use Class 0 ( Watts) 802.3at power requirements can range from to 25 Watts Using extended distance products can result in requiring additional power.
Network PoE switches are not designed to provide the power needed for IP cameras. In efforts to maintain competitive pricing, only limited power is provided. In most cases power is shared among all switch ports limiting output power to each port far below the full power. This is called power sharing. Only a limited number of switches provide the required control to allocate power on a per port bases. What are the challenges in Providing PoE for IP Cameras? Challenges for PoE Network Switches : A network switch specification indicating 15.4 or 30 watts is only an indication that the port is capable of handling this amount of power and not the actual available power
The Biggest Challenge is providing the proper power source for your IP Camera. All network switches have a difference between their total power supplies and the power provided to their PoE ports 80% usage remain for PoE 70% usage remain for PoE
How do I know if a PoE a Network Switch will work for my application? The only certain method is for the switch port(s) to provide full power output. This means 15.4W for 802.3af and 30W for 802.3af Use simple math: Look at the switchs power supply. Subtract 25% watts for switch operations (overhead). Divide the number of ports into the resulting power figure. If the resulting number is less than 15.4 watts the switch does not have the ability to provide full 802.3af power per port. If the resulting number is less than 30 watts the switch does not have the ability to provide full at power per port. Most network switches do not provide specifications for the differences between total power and PoE power!
How do I know if a PoE Network Switch will work for my application? Programming makes the difference If the switch programming is limited to all ports ON or all ports OFF then power is shared among all ports and full power output is not possible for all ports simultaneously. If a switchs programming allows different power levels to be allocated to individual ports than the number of ports that can provide full power will be limited to the total available switch power.
The following is a specification for a typical Layer 2 network switch. Upon first reading you might believe that this switch has the ability to provide a full 15.4 watts (802.3af) to all 24 ports. But look carefully. Here is the complete switch specification with regard to power. The wording indicates that all ports are capable of handling 15.4 watts, but does not state that all ports provide 15.4 watts at the same time The PoE budget is stated as 15.4watts, but there is no indication of the power required for overheads which normally is 25% less or greater. This is the most interesting specification. Class 2 is 6.49 watts and the specification clearly states that the maximum number of Class 2 PDs (cameras that can be powered is 24 but according to the specification only at Class 2) Reading Network Switch PoE Specifications Correctly
Summary: How network Switches Provide PoE power 1.The switch only provides PoE power On/Off: Power is shared on all ports and cannot exceed the total power divided by the total number of ports. 2.Switch provides the ability to program power to individual ports. Higher power than the amount equal to providing equal power to all ports results in limiting the number of ports that can achieve the required power. 3.Switch can provide full power to all ports; this means the power supply must provide 15.4W or 30W to all ports.
What network switches lack and IP camera systems Need 1.High-power temperature-stable transformers and components- this is the key limiting factor due to product cost. 2.No shared power. All ports must provide the maximum power individually with no sharing or taking power from other ports. 3.At least 30 watts per port. With the rapid movement to 802.3at and the requirement to have 802.3af, Class 0 and Class 3, you need higher starting power in order to compensate for differences in cable resistance, the use of different types of cable (normal verse mini) and extended distance applications. 4.Surge current programming: It is important the system be able to recognize the start-up in features such as day/night, auto back-focus, and PTZ motors that will result in surge current to avoid system shut down while maintain PSE to PD protection. 5.Individual port fusing: To protect all products and to disable. 6.Port restart: If the problems detected are of a temporary nature the Midspan or Network PoE switch should have the ability to restart power to the camera to avoid a service call. 7.Under all power modes, especially forced power, communication between the PSE and PD must be maintained to shut down power in the event of over current conditions.
Providing up to 60W of power with data at long distances over UTP or Coax cables. Providing up to 60W of power and data using only two devices: a transmitter and receiver. Providing up to 60W of power and data while maintaining standard PoE safety measures between the camera (PD) and power source (PSE). Staying within the cable power-handling safety limitations of 0.750mA per each two pairs, 1.5A per each Cat5 cable. Maintaining PSE to PD communications to provide both PSE and PD. Communicating with two PDs What are the challenges in long distance 60 watt PoE?
Use a PoE Injector: Network Switch PoE Camera PoE Injector Disadvantages: Requires local power within 328 feet/100 meters from the camera. Pushing power defeats communication and safety features which can lead to damaging shorts in the injector and/or camera. Using an injector does not address the issue of extended distance. How can I provide the PoE power that my system requires?
Midspans can have the same limitations as PoE network switches. Attempts to cost down the products can lead to: 1.Power sharing decreasing the actual operating power at each port. 2.Pushing power instead of establishing standard communication and protection between PSE and PD. 3.Lack of proper fusing and adequate port power protection. Evaluate Midspan power using the same methods as a PoE network switch, however many times Midspan specifications do not address issues involving: Port fusing, Power pushing and Power sharing. Use a PoE Midspan:
Vigitrons Standard and extended distance PoE solutions
Vigitron PoE Advantages Vigitron products maintain two standards critical for high performance PoE: Midspans There is no power sharing for multiple port devices. PSE to PD communications and safety features are always maintained at standard and extended distances. Auto reset fuse links-no need for service call Port polling- allows you to set ports for individual camera requirements Programming for surge- will feed extra power when required without shutting down port while still protecting the port. Auto restart- of power when conditions are save Vigitron field devices: Extenders Conforms to extreme high and low temperature operation tested under NEMA-TS Traffic standards at -40C to +75C. Does not interfere with PSE to PD communications No local power required saving on power supply costs and the local power outlets Does not change signal formats, compatible with multicasting Provides flat bandwidth 100Mbps response by to largest jumbo frame size resulting in best video reproduction for largest megapixel cameras
PoE af/at PoE Switch MaxiiCopper Extender MaxiiCopper Extender PoE Camera What is Pass Through PoE (PTP)? Pass-Through-PoE is a process that receives power from a single source, powering both transceivers and the camera without the need for local power supplies or outlets Advantages: Eliminates the need for local power supplies and power outlets for transceivers and cameras Results in cooler more reliable product operation. Maintains PSE to PD communications and protection in the event of over current conditions. Conforms to extreme high and low temperature operation tested under NEMA-TS Traffic Standards at -40C to +75C.
How Far Can I really Go: 802.3af Vigitron Testing Standards Cat 5e 24 AWG 100Mbps /=.188ohms/m PSE Source (15.4 Watts) PD Power (12.95 Watts ) Wire Power Loss 100m (328 ft.) UTP PoE af PoE Switch MaxiiCopper Extender MaxiiCopper Extender PSE Source (15.4 Watts) PD Power (7.95 Watts ) 2 meters 909 meters There are no standards for Coax as it relates to PoE standards
How Far Can I really Go: 802.3at PSE Source (30 Watts) PD Power (25 Watts ) Wire Power Loss 100m (328 ft.) UTP PoE af PoE Switch MaxiiCopper Extender MaxiiCopper Extender PSE Source (37 Watts) PD Power (25 Watts ) 2 meters 152 meters Vigitron Testing Standards RG59U/UTP Cat 5e (standard cable resistance: 22 ohm per 1,000 feet) 100Mbps
How Far Can I really Go: Factors affecting Distance UTP: Standard: Cat 5e Wire Gauge: 24 AWG Ohms per 1,000 feet per wire standard =approx 28 ohms Higher the number the higher the resistance the lower the distance Cat 6 will generally yield about a 7% increase in distance. Vigitrons testing standard for 2 pair is 26 Ohms per 1000 feet. Vigitrons testing standard for 4 pair is 13 Ohms per 1000 feet. Vigitron doubles the resistance used for standards to compensate for cable differences
How Far Can I really Go: Factors affecting Distance Coax: Vigitron Standard: RG59U Wire Resistance 22 Ohms per 1,000 feet Higher the resistance the lower the distance. There are no standards for transmitting PoE over coax. Resistances can vary greatly over a wide range starting around 7 Ohms per 1,000 feet. By selecting a higher value Vigitrons specifications can compensate for variations in cable resistance.
How Far Can I really Go: Factors affecting Distance UTP and Coax Amount of source power: The higher the starting power, the higher the ending power. Keep in mind there are current limitations of approximately.75 amps per pair Use of external power supplies to transceivers: For the Vi2301 and Vi2401 using external power supplies will add about 2 watts available to the camera (1 Watt per Vigitron transceiver ). Vigitrons testing standards for both UTP and Coax cable are designed to match the PoE standards of.188ohms/m for Cat 5 cable and 25k ohm PD resistance. This results in real world performance
How do I know if my problem is the power source or the cable? Vigitrons unique Vi0021 PoE Voltage and Power meter quickly identifies IP camera installation problems and avoids customers repeated returning cameras as defective. Vi0019 Sixty Watt PoE Power Meter
OK, You solved my need for 802.3af, 802.3at and 60 watt power for up to 100m (328 ft.). What if I need an extended distance solution?
Ethernet Switch watts 74 watts No power supply required at camera site 6 feet This solution works with cameras using both one and two PDs, which can be applied to all types of cameras at all power levels. Vi1120 Vi2701 Rx/Tx Complete PoE Solution Vi2701RX 40-56VDC Vi2701TX Q6032-E
Ethernet Switch Vi2301A Vi2304A Vi2308A Vi2316A 3,000 feet 6 feet 328 feet Ethernet Switch Vi2701RX 800 feet No power supply required at camera site 6 feet Axis & Vi2701 Solutions Q6032-E Vi1120 AXIS Q6032-E, AXIS Q6034-E, AXIS Q6035-E Vi2301A Vi2701TX (Local Power) This solution only works with cameras using two PD, which is usually applied only to cameras requiring more than 802.3at (30 watt) power.
Ethernet Switch Vi2301A Vi2304A Vi2308A Vi2316A 2,000 feet 100BaseT (Data only) 6 feet Vi1120 (Local Power) Vi2301A 6 feet Total Distance Up to 4,000 feet Data + Power 100BaseT W W Vi2701TX Vi2701Tx / Vi23xxA PoE Solution
Ethernet Switch Vi2301A 3,000 feet (data only) 6 feet 324 feet Vi2701TX Vi2701 Rx / Tx Complete PoE Solution Ethernet Switch 3, watts 1, watts watts 6 feet Vi2701TX This solution works with cameras using both one and two PDs, which can be applied to all types of cameras at all power levels. Vi1120 No power supply required at camera site Vi2500 Vi VDC Q6032-E
Ethernet Switch Vi2301A 2,000 feet 100BaseT (data only) 6 feet Vi2701TX Vi1120 Vi feet Total Distance Up to 4,000 feet Data + Power 100BaseT W W Vi2701 Tx / Vi2301A PoE Solution
Vi2804AP 60W PoE Solution Up to 3,000 feet (Data only) Vi2301A Vi 0015 Network Switch 328 feet 328 feet, 60W (PoE) Vi2804AP Vi W (PoE) Vi0012 Q6032-E 328 feet
802.3af and 802.3at Extended Distance Solutions Vi2401 Network Switch Vi2804P Vi2301A Total Distance Up to 6,500 feet Vi1120 Vi2301A Up to 5,000 feet (Data only) Vi W
Axis Power Distance Chart Class 0,3,4 and 60 watts
Summary: PoE Considerations 1.Power source 2.PD or Camera real power requirements 3.Ability of extenders, transceivers and other processing equipment to maintain required power over required distances. 4.The ability of system to maintain PSE to PD communications 5.Type of cable and cable resistance 6.Direct cable run or number of cable breaks and types of connections. 7.Cable distance 8.Extended cable distance over 100 Meters (328 feet)
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