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1 CP2073 Networking Lecture 5. CP2073 Networking 2 Introduction 8Physical and Logical Topologies 8Topologies 8Bus 8Ring 8Star 8Extended Star 8Mesh 8Hybrid.

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Presentation on theme: "1 CP2073 Networking Lecture 5. CP2073 Networking 2 Introduction 8Physical and Logical Topologies 8Topologies 8Bus 8Ring 8Star 8Extended Star 8Mesh 8Hybrid."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 CP2073 Networking Lecture 5

2 CP2073 Networking 2 Introduction 8Physical and Logical Topologies 8Topologies 8Bus 8Ring 8Star 8Extended Star 8Mesh 8Hybrid

3 CP2073 Networking 3 Physical vs. Logical Topology 8 The actual layout of a network and its media is its Physical Topology 8 The way in which the data access the medium and transmits packets is the Logical Topology 8 A glance at a network is not always revealing. Cables emerging from a Hub does not make it necessarily a Star Topology – it may actually be a bus or a ring

4 CP2073 Networking 4 Physical vs. Logical Topology (2) 8 Your choice of Logical Topology will affect the Physical Topology – and vice versa 8 Design carefully – it may be difficult to change part way through the installation 8 Your choice will determine cable installation, network devices, network connections, protocols (and where you will drill holes in the building !)

5 CP2073 Networking 5 Factors 8 Cost 8 Scalability 8 Bandwidth Capacity 8 Ease of Installation 8 Ease of fault finding and maintenance

6 CP2073 Networking 6 Bus Topology

7 CP2073 Networking 7 Bus Topology (2) 8 Network maintained by a single cable 8 Cable segment must end with a terminator 8 Uses thin coaxial cable (backbones will be thick coaxial cable) 8 Extra stations can be added in a daisy chain manner

8 CP2073 Networking 8 Bus Topology (3) 8 Standard is IEEE Thin Ethernet (10Base2) has a maximum segment length of 200m 8 Max no. of connections is 30 devices 8 Four repeaters may be used to a total cable length of 1000m 8 Max no. of nodes is 150

9 CP2073 Networking 9 Bus Topology (4) 8 Thick Ethernet (10Base5) used for backbones 8 Limited to 500m 8 Max of 100 nodes per segment 8 Total of four repeaters, 2500m, with a total of 488 nodes

10 CP2073 Networking 10 Bus Topology (5) Advantages 8Inexpensive to install 8Easy to add stations 8Use less cable than other topologies 8Works well for small networks Disadvantages 8No longer recommended 8Backbone breaks, whole network down 8Limited no of devices can be attached 8Difficult to isolate problems 8Sharing same cable slows response rates

11 CP2073 Networking 11 Ring Topology

12 CP2073 Networking 12 Ring Topology (2) 8 No beginning or end (a ring in fact !!) 8 All devices of equality of access to media 8 Single ring – data travels in one direction only, guess what a double ring allows !? 8 Each device has to wait its turn to transmit 8 Most common type is Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) 8 A token contains the data, reaches the destination, data extracted, acknowledgement of receipt sent back to transmitting device, removed, empty token passed on for another device to use

13 CP2073 Networking 13 Ring Topology (3) Advantages 8 Data packets travel at great speed 8 No collisions 8 Easier to fault find 8 No terminators required Disadvantages 8 Requires more cable than a bus 8 A break in the ring will bring it down 8 Not as common as the bus – less devices available

14 CP2073 Networking 14 Star Topology

15 CP2073 Networking 15 Star Topology (2) 8 Like the spokes of a wheel (without the symmetry) 8 Centre point is a Hub 8 Segments meet at the Hub 8 Each device needs its own cable to the Hub 8 Predominant type of topology 8 Easy to maintain and expand

16 CP2073 Networking 16 Star Topology (3) 8 Advantages 8 Easy to add devices as the network expands 8 One cable failure does not bring down the entire network (resilience) 8 Hub provides centralised management 8 Easy to find device and cable problems 8 Can be upgraded to faster speeds 8 Lots of support as it is the most used 8 Disadvantages 8 A star network requires more cable than a ring or bus network 8 Failure of the central hub can bring down the entire network 8 Costs are higher (installation and equipment) than for most bus networks

17 CP2073 Networking 17 Extended Star Topology A Star Network which has been expanded to include an additional hub or hubs.

18 CP2073 Networking 18 Mesh Topology (Web)

19 CP2073 Networking 19 Mesh Topology (2) 8 Not common on LANs 8 Most often used in WANs to interconnect LANS 8 Each node is connected to every other node 8 Allows communication to continue in the event of a break in any one connection 8 It is Fault Tolerant

20 CP2073 Networking 20 Mesh Topology (3) Advantages 8 Improves Fault Tolerance Disadvantages 8 Expensive 8 Difficult to install 8 Difficult to manage 8 Difficult to troubleshoot

21 CP2073 Networking 21 Hybrid Topology

22 CP2073 Networking 22 Hybrid Topology (2) 8 Old networks are updated and replaced, leaving older segments (legacy) 8 Hybrid Topology – combines two or more different physical topologies 8 Commonly Star-Bus or Star-Ring 8 Star-Ring uses a MAU (Multistation Access Unit (see later slide)

23 CP2073 Networking 23 Types of Logical Topology 8 Previous slides showed Physical Topologies 8 Only two Logical Topologies (Bus or Ring) 8 Physical Bus or Ring easy to conceptualise 8 Physical Star could be either a Bus or Ring in logical terms 8 Confused ? See next slides

24 CP2073 Networking 24 Logical Bus Modern Ethernet networks are Star Topologies (physically) The Hub is at the centre, and defines a Star Topology The Hub itself uses a Logical Bus Topology internally, to transmit data to all segments

25 CP2073 Networking 25 Logical Bus Advantages 8 A single node failure does not bring the network down 8 Most widely implemented topology 8 Network can be added to or changed without affecting other stations Disadvantages 8 Collisions can occur easily 8 Only one device can access the network media at a time

26 CP2073 Networking 26 Logical Ring 8 Data in a Star Topology can transmit data in a Ring 8 The MAU (Multistation Access Unit) looks like an ordinary Hub, but data is passed internally using a logical ring 8 It is superior to a Logical Bus Hub – see later slide

27 CP2073 Networking 27 Logical Ring (2)

28 CP2073 Networking 28 Logical Ring (3) Advantages 8 The amount of data that can be carried in a single message is greater than on a logical bus 8 There are no collisions Disadvantages 8 A broken ring will stop all transmissions 8 A device must wait for an empty token to be able to transmit

29 CP2073 Networking 29 Summary 8 Bus Topology 8 Ring Topology 8 Star Topology 8 Other Topologies 8 Logical Topologies 8 Questions and Answers

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