Page 2 The IP Revolution IP Revolution Why now? The 3 Pillars of the IP Revolution How IP changes everything
Page 3 IP Revolution This is really a misnomer What we are in the middle of is a Digital revolution The CCTV world is moving from Analog to Digital This is much more than just the transmission (IP)
Page 4 What Digital means Why have so many technologies gone digital? Digital signals do not degrade with distance Digital data does not degrade with time Digital data does not degrade when copied Incredible digital technologies can be used for IP Video Simple concepts with huge implications
Page 5 Why Now? The technologies required have come together at exactly the same time All the required technologies are now at price points which make IP system cheaper than analog ones
Page 6 3 Pillars of the Revolution 1.Compression 2.Networks 3.Storage
Page 7 Pillar 1: Compression Raw PAL/NTSC video runs at 158 Mbps This needs to be compressed! This will get worse with HD 720p HD Video is 500 Mbps 1080p HD Video is 1,000 Mbps!
Page 8 CCTV and TV Compression for TV is different In the TV world there are millions of decoders for every encoder In CCTV it is the other way around CCTV needs low latency So a good compression standard for TV is not good for CCTV
Page 9 Compression Tools MJPEG – simple to implement but not good MPEG-4 – more difficult to implement, but good compression H.264 (now MPEG4 part 10) difficult to implement and excellent compression
Page 11 What bitrate? Assuming a Good H.264 compressor: Standard PAL/NTSC: 2 Mbps 720p HD: 1 – 6 Mbps 1080p HD: 2 – 10 Mbps A bad compressor will 10x these values – and your storage will be 10x!
Page 12 Pillar 2: Networks Ethernet Switching has revolutionised networking In a switch data is only transmitted on the ports where the data is sent to The Backbone of the switch can handle much more than the speed of each port
Page 13 Example 24 port switch Cisco 2960 24 x 100Mbps ports 2 x 1 Gbps ports Switching capacity 6.5 M Packets/sec With 1 Kbit packets this is 6.5 G bps That is 3000 streams of 2Mbps video! 400 Pounds
Page 14 Rack encoders Rack based encoders reduce costs even further – as long as they have 1 Ethernet connection 20 racks connected to a switch with 10 slots per rack gives 200 streams At $800 per switch that is $4 per stream!
Page 15 Spreading the load Distributing the recording around the network means that very large systems can be built easily For a 2000 camera system you do not just multiply the bandwidth by the number of streams More details this afternoon
Page 16 Long distance If you can lay fibre the cost per stream is very low Wireless technology has dropped in price WAN networking costs are dropping and available bandwidths are climbing
Page 17 Choosing switches Make sure the whole network is thought out and designed Check features like the maximum number of multicast groups Always buy managed switches Dont scrimp – but dont over engineer!
Page 18 Power Over Ethernet This technology has always been good The price per slot is now very low The PoE premium is around £7 per port Compared to the cost of cabling and individual power supplies this is a huge saving A new standard will provide enough power for PTZ!
Page 19 Pillar 3: Storage Storage can be as much as 50% of the total system cost Disks just keep getting bigger (now 1.5TB) End users want to record: Higher quality Higher frame rates For longer HD Cameras demand even more storage!
Page 20 Video Storage is not normal CCTV puts very high demands on storage Data rates are very high and relentless The read/write ratio is completely different to a general office environment CCTV is 99.9% write 0.1% read
Page 21 Not all disks are the same! All disk manufacturers have disks with different ratings Make sure the disks in your NVR are rated for 24/7/365 operation
Page 22 Why IP Changes Everything Distance does not matter Easy scalability Software decode – workstation based security Analog: cheap input - expensive output Digital: cheap input - free output Composite video is dead
Page 23 Distance does not matter In an analog system distance is everything In a digital world a camera on a network is on the network – regardless of distance A camera 100ft away is the same as one 10 miles away An NVR 100ft away is the same as one 100 miles away
Page 24 Easy Scalability Modern networks have capacity to handle many thousands of streams Modern workstations can decode many streams of video As long as the software supports large numbers scalability is easy
Page 25 Software Decode Viewing video does not need custom equipment Viewing video does not need hardware help Decoding video is much easier than encoding it
Page 26 Analog - Digital When IP video is compressed – the hard bit is done Taking a video stream off of the network and displaying it just needs a PC based workstation In the digital world viewing is cheap
Page 27 Summary 3 Pillars of the Revolution 1.Compression 2.Networks 3.Storage