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4 The Textile and Apparel Industry Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Analyze the three.

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Presentation on theme: "4 The Textile and Apparel Industry Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Analyze the three."— Presentation transcript:

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2 4 The Textile and Apparel Industry

3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Analyze the three segments of todays textile and apparel industry. Summarize the structure of the textile and apparel industry. Describe occupations and careers in the textile production, apparel production, and the retail segments and the education and training they require.

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Textile and Apparel Industry Textile and Apparel Industry Textile Production Apparel Production The Retail Segment continued

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Textile Production Segment Focuses on production of fabrics for apparel and other uses © Bobby Deal/RealDealPhoto/Shutterstock

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Textile Production Segment Deals with –fibers –yarns –dyes –finishes –methods of fabric production

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Structure of the Textile Industry Four stages of production I.Fiber production II.Yarn production III.Fabric production IV.Fabric finishing

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Textile Designing Textile designers –develop designs for fabrics, color combinations, patterns, prints, and weaves –often use computer design programs to create designs

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Think About It What is the difference between a textile designer and a fashion designer? © crystalfoto/Shutterstock

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Textile Converters Decide what fibers to use, what widths and weights of fabrics to weave or knit, and how many yards to produce Select dye colors and finishes that help fabrics perform as expected

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Manufacturing Includes textile plant operations or processes –spinning –dyeing –weaving –knitting –finishing continued

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Manufacturing Employees who use machines in their work include spinners, colorists, loom operators, and machine operators Engineerschemical, computer, industrial, and plantplay an important part Laboratory technicians perform tests on fibers, yarns, and fabrics

13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Research and Development Develop and produce new products to meet consumer demand and find ways to produce these products continued © Alexander Raths/Shutterstock

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Research and Development Researchworking to find new products such as fibers, weaves, dyes, and finishing techniquesResearch Developmentfinding practical ways to use products researchers createDevelopment

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Marketing Marketingall activities involved in creating and selling profitable productsMarketing Manufacturers must decide what raw materials to buy and what fabrics to manufacture Manufacturers base their decisions on careful studies of what customers want continued

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Marketing Market analystspeople who study fashion changes and consumer demands and use forecastingforecasting Selling is the last step in the marketing process Textile sales associates show fabric samples to clothing manufacturers

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Apparel Production Segment Includes all people and processes involved in designing and making garments © Sapsiwai/Shutterstock continued

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Apparel Production Segment Design garments Make patterns Cut Sew Assemble Distribute finished items to stores

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Structure of Apparel Companies Apparel production companies have various departments or divisions, and may include –research and merchandising –design and product development –production –sales and marketing

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Research and Merchandising Apparel production begins with research A firms staff tries to forecast what their customers will buy Their goal is to have the right products, at the right price, at the right time so the company will be profitable continued

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Research and Merchandising Apparel designers interpret trends and create sketches and sample designs © Dasha Petrenko/Shutterstock continued

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Research and Merchandising Sample designs become a part of a merchandising plan merchandising plan Designers show sample designs to retail buyers who then make selections Then the selected designs are prepared for production

23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Design and Product Development Fashion designers create designs and ideas for clothes and accessories They make sketches until one is satisfactory

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Think About It In what might fashion designers specialize? © AISPIX/Shutterstock

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Production Garment-making process involves multiple steps performed by many workers including –Production pattern makers make master patterns –Pattern graders make patterns into a wide range of sizes continued

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Production Markers decide how to place pattern pieces to prevent fabric waste Cutters cut through the layers of fabric with power saws or electric cutting machines Sewing machine operators sew the pieces together Finishers, trimmers, and pressers complete the garments continued

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Production Workers in engineering and management have good communication and problem- solving skills Engineering and management positions include – plant managers – production managers – production engineers – costing engineers – quality control engineers

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sales and Marketing Marketing in the apparel industry is primarily wholesalewholesale Manufacturers sell to retail buyers who represent shops and department stores continued

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sales and Marketing In retail sales, shops and department stores sell to individual customersretail continued © Losevsky Pavel/Shutterstock

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sales and Marketing New fashions are in production at least a season, or six months When samples are ready, retail buyers view them in showrooms during market weekmarket week continued

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sales and Marketing During market weeks, retail-store buyers come to fashion centers to view new collections and make selectionsfashion centers In several large cities, such as Atlanta, Dallas, and Chicago, there are also apparel marts apparel marts

32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Think About It Where are the major U.S. fashion centers? © Cedric Weber/Shutterstock

33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Custom Work in Apparel Production Some people have their clothing custom-made custom-made Tailoring is a form of custom work Suits and coats are the garments most often tailored

34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Think About It Why might someone choose to have garments custom- made? © Levent Konuk/Shutterstock

35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Retail Segment Retailers includeRetailers –department stores –discount chains –specialty stores (carrying specific kinds of apparel) –Internet and mail-order companies continued

36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Retail Segment Fashion merchandising includesFashion merchandising –planning –buying –selling Merchandising is the central function of retailers continued

37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Retail Segment After garments are through production, they are ready for sale to consumers continued © Blend Images/Shutterstock

38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Retail Segment Fashion promotion is an important part of sellingFashion promotion It includes –advertising –setting up window and store displays –media publicity –special events as fashion shows continued

39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Retail Segment Merchandising and promotion involves –merchandise managers –buyers –sales associates –market researchers –fashion coordinators –display directors –illustrators –writers –models

40 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Merchandise Managers Operate one or more departments within a store Plan seasonal sales, promotional sales, and special events Decide what merchandise to sell and at what price © Dinga/Shutterstock

41 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Buyers Responsible for selecting clothes to sell in stores they represent May go to major fashion centers or markets several times a year Order items and amounts to be delivered to their stores after viewing manufacturers merchandise continued

42 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Buyers Keep records about what customers are buying in their stores Are interested in what styles, colors, and sizes are selling best Make decisions that largely determine a stores profits

43 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sales Associates Only store employees most customers ever meet May form lasting bonds with devoted customers Earn an hourly rate, salary, or salary plus a commissioncommission © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock

44 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Stock Clerk © Robert Kneschke/Shutterstock Receive merchandise Prepare price tags May help with straightening stock

45 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Market Researchers Study customer wants and needs Communicate this information to manufacturers, designers, and buyers © Stephen Coburn/Shutterstock

46 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Coordinators Promote stores and merchandise Gather and relay fashion information to merchandise managers and buyers Work with advertising and publicity Plan fashion shows © Benis Arapovic/Shutterstock

47 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Display Directors Create attractive displays seen in stores and store windows Work closely with fashion coordinators © Adisa/Shutterstock

48 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Illustrators Work for retail stores, pattern companies, and advertising agencies Create attractive and detailed drawings © VikOl/Shutterstock

49 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Writers Inform public about new trends in fashion as soon as they occur © samotrebizan/Shutterstock

50 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fashion Models Serve many needs in photos for press releases, Internet and mail-order catalogs, pattern catalogs, and advertisements Are essential in fashion shows © Benis Arapovic/Shutterstock

51 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Alterations Alterations specialists must have superior sewing skills, work fast, and fit clothing properly © siart/Shutterstock

52 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Summarize the concept of vertical integration.

53 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Vertical Integration of the Textile and Apparel Industries Prior to 1970s, most companies focused on one aspect of fabric/apparel production –Textile mills produced fabrics that they sold to apparel manufacturing companies –Apparel manufacturing companies produced apparel that they sold to retailers continued

54 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Today many large corporations handle all stages of production (vertical integration)vertical integration –They produce fibers –They sew garments –They sell garments in stores This allows them to control all steps in the creation of their apparel, leading to greater cost control Vertical Integration of the Textile and Apparel Industries

55 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review 1.Name the three segments of the textile and apparel industry. continued textile production, apparel production, the retail segment 2.Name the four stages of production that form the basic structure of the textile industry. fiber production, yarn production, fabric production, fabric finishing

56 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review 3.Textile converters are responsible for costing the fabric. What does this mean? How is it done? continued They set prices by computing all the costs involved in producing the fabric. They then add a margin of profit to the production cost to determine the fabrics selling price.

57 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review 4.What kinds of activities take place during market weeks? continued Manufacturers hold special fashion shows for buyers. Models wear the new designs to help convince buyers to order them. Fashion writers and fashion- promotion specialists attend these invitation-only shows and gather information about the new fashions.

58 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review 5.Describe an occupation in each of the three segments of the textile and apparel industry. continued Answers will vary.

59 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review 6.Summarize the concept of vertical integration. a system used by some large corporations that handle all stages of production from producing the fibers to sewing the garments to selling them in stores

60 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. apparel mart. Buildings where many garment manufacturers have permanent showrooms and sales offices. commission. A percentage of a sales associates total sales that is paid in addition to his or her salary. custom-made. Garments that are specially designed for an individual.

61 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. development. Finding practical ways to use products that researchers create. fashion center. Cities such as New York, Los Angeles, Dallas, Chicago, Atlanta, and Miami where retail-store buyers come during fashion weeks to view the new collections and make their selections. fashion merchandising. All phases of planning, buying, and selling apparel.

62 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. fashion promotion. Advertising, setting up window and store displays, media publicity, and special events such as fashion shows. forecasting. Projecting future market trends for the coming months and years. marketing. All of the activities involved in creating and selling profitable products.

63 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. market week. Time periods when apparel companies offer the next seasons fashion lines. merchandising plan. The producers plans for creating a line of designs for a given season.

64 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. research. Working to find new products such as fibers, weaves, dyes, and finishing techniques. retail. Selling small quantities of goods to consumers. retailers. Businesses that buy garments from manufacturers and sell them to customers.

65 Glossary Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. vertical integration. A company that handles several or all steps in production and/or distribution. wholesale. Selling quantities of goods for resale.


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