2The Textile and Apparel Industry 4The Textile and Apparel Industry
3ObjectivesAnalyze the three segments of today’s textile and apparel industry.Summarize the structure of the textile and apparel industry.Describe occupations and careers in the textile production, apparel production, and the retail segments and the education and training they require.
10Textile ConvertersDecide what fibers to use, what widths and weights of fabrics to weave or knit, and how many yards to produceSelect dye colors and finishes that help fabrics perform as expected
11Manufacturing Includes textile plant operations or processes spinning dyeingweavingknittingfinishingcontinued
12ManufacturingEmployees who use machines in their work include spinners, colorists, loom operators, and machine operatorsEngineers—chemical, computer, industrial, and plant—play an important partLaboratory technicians perform tests on fibers, yarns, and fabrics
14Research and Development Research—working to find new products such as fibers, weaves, dyes, and finishing techniquesDevelopment—finding practical ways to use products researchers create
15MarketingMarketing—all activities involved in creating and selling profitable productsManufacturers must decide what raw materials to buy and what fabrics to manufactureManufacturers base their decisions on careful studies of what customers wantcontinued
16MarketingMarket analysts—people who study fashion changes and consumer demands and use forecastingSelling is the last step in the marketing processTextile sales associates show fabric samples to clothing manufacturers
18Apparel Production Segment Design garmentsMake patternsCutSewAssembleDistribute finished items to stores
19The Structure of Apparel Companies Apparel production companies have various departments or divisions, and may includeresearch and merchandisingdesign and product developmentproductionsales and marketing
20Research and Merchandising Apparel production begins with researchA firm’s staff tries to forecast what their customers will buyTheir goal is to have the right products, at the right price, at the right time so the company will be profitablecontinued
22Research and Merchandising Sample designs become a part of a merchandising planDesigners show sample designs to retail buyers who then make selectionsThen the selected designs are prepared for production
23Design and Product Development Fashion designers create designs and ideas for clothes and accessoriesThey make sketches until one is satisfactory
25ProductionGarment-making process involves multiple steps performed by many workers includingProduction pattern makers make master patternsPattern graders make patterns into a wide range of sizescontinued
26ProductionMarkers decide how to place pattern pieces to prevent fabric wasteCutters cut through the layers of fabric with power saws or electric cutting machinesSewing machine operators sew the pieces togetherFinishers, trimmers, and pressers complete the garmentscontinued
27ProductionWorkers in engineering and management have good communication and problem-solving skillsEngineering and management positions include– plant managers– production managers– production engineers– costing engineers– quality controlengineers
28Sales and MarketingMarketing in the apparel industry is primarily wholesaleManufacturers sell to retail buyers who represent shops and department storescontinued
30Sales and MarketingNew fashions are in production at least a “season,” or six monthsWhen samples are ready, retail buyers view them in showrooms during market weekcontinued
31Sales and MarketingDuring market weeks, retail-store buyers come to fashion centers to view new collections and make selectionsIn several large cities, such as Atlanta, Dallas, and Chicago, there are also apparel marts
41BuyersResponsible for selecting clothes to sell in stores they representMay go to major fashion centers or markets several times a yearOrder items and amounts to be delivered to their stores after viewing manufacturer’s merchandisecontinued
42Buyers Keep records about what customers are buying in their stores Are interested in what styles, colors, and sizes are selling bestMake decisions that largely determine a store’s profits
52Summarize the concept of vertical integration. ObjectiveSummarize the concept of vertical integration.
53Vertical Integration of the Textile and Apparel Industries Prior to 1970s, most companies focused on one aspect of fabric/apparel productionTextile mills produced fabrics that they sold to apparel manufacturing companiesApparel manufacturing companies produced apparel that they sold to retailerscontinued
54Vertical Integration of the Textile and Apparel Industries Today many large corporations handle all stages of production (vertical integration)They produce fibersThey sew garmentsThey sell garments in storesThis allows them to control all steps in the creation of their apparel, leading to greater cost control
55Name the three segments of the textile and apparel industry. textile production, apparel production, the retail segment2. Name the four stages of production that form the basic structure of the textile industry.fiber production, yarn production, fabric production, fabric finishingcontinued
563. Textile converters are responsible for “costing the fabric 3. Textile converters are responsible for “costing the fabric.” What does this mean? How is it done?They set prices by computing all the costs involved in producing the fabric. They then add a margin of profit to the production cost to determine the fabric’s selling price.continued
574. What kinds of activities take place during market weeks? Manufacturers hold special fashion shows for buyers. Models wear the new designs to help convince buyers to order them. Fashion writers and fashion-promotion specialists attend these invitation-only shows and gather information about the new fashions.continued
585. Describe an occupation in each of the three segments of the textile and apparel industry. Answers will vary.continued58
596. Summarize the concept of vertical integration. a system used by some large corporations that handle all stages of production from producing the fibers to sewing the garments to selling them in stores59
60apparel mart. Buildings where many garment manufacturers have permanent showrooms and sales offices. commission. A percentage of a sales associate’s total sales that is paid in addition to his or her salary.custom-made. Garments that are specially designed for an individual.
61development. Finding practical ways to use products that researchers create. fashion center. Cities such as New York, Los Angeles, Dallas, Chicago, Atlanta, and Miami where retail-store buyers come during fashion weeks to view the new collections and make their selections.fashion merchandising. All phases of planning, buying, and selling apparel.
62fashion promotion. Advertising, setting up window and store displays, media publicity, and special events such as fashion shows.forecasting. Projecting future market trends for the coming months and years.marketing. All of the activities involved in creating and selling profitable products.
63market week. Time periods when apparel companies offer the next season’s fashion lines. merchandising plan. The producer’s plans for creating a line of designs for a given season.
64research. Working to find new products such as fibers, weaves, dyes, and finishing techniques. retail. Selling small quantities of goods to consumers.retailers. Businesses that buy garments from manufacturers and sell them to customers.
65vertical integration. A company that handles several or all steps in production and/or distribution. wholesale. Selling quantities of goods for resale.