Presentation on theme: "Marketing and Distribution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Marketing and Distribution Chapter 11Marketing and Distribution
2 The Changing Role of Marketing Chapter 11 Section 1The Changing Role of Marketing
3 The Development of Marketing Marketing: all the activities needed to move goods and services from the producer to the consumerThe sole purpose of marketing is to convince consumers that a certain product or service will add to their utility.
4 The Development of Marketing Some economists estimate that about 50% of the price people pay for an item today is the cost of marketing.The development of marketing can be traced by analyzing what it has focused on: production, sales, advertising and consumer sovereignty.Consumer Sovereignty: the role of the consumer as ruler of the market when determining the types of goods and services produced
5 The Development of Marketing Meeting Consumer UtilityUtility: the amount of satisfaction one gets from a good or serviceUtility can be divided into four major types:Form UtilityPlace UtilityTime UtilityOwnership Utility
6 Form UtilityForm utility is converting raw materials into desired/needed products.Created by production.Examples:Transforming cotton cloth into draperiesRefining crude oil into gasoline
7 Place UtilityPlace utility is providing the good/service where the customer wants it to be.Examples:Locating a gas station on a busy corner.Internet shopping
8 Time UtilityTime utility is providing the good/service at precisely the time the customer wants it.Examples:A 24-hour grocery store or restaurantInternet shopping
9 Ownership UtilityOwnership utility is providing goods/services that people are pleased to own.Examples:Fine artLuxury carsExpensive jewelry
10 Market ResearchMarket Research: gathering, recording, and analyzing data about the types of goods and services people wantShould be done before the product is made or service is offered.In this sense, the market means the potential buyers of the good or service.
11 Market Research When should market research be done? At the very beginning when the first ideas about a new product are being developed.Test sample products and alternative packaging designs.Immediately after a product is released for saleEarly market research helps producers determine whether there is a market for the good and can indicate changes in quality.
12 Market Research Market Surveys Market Survey: information gathered by researchers about possible users of a product based on such characteristics as age, gender, income, education, and locationA market survey usually involves a series of carefully worded questions.Surveys could also use focus groups.
13 Market Research Testing New Products Offer the item for sale in a small market before selling it to a larger area.Test Marketing: offering a product for sale in a small area for a limited period of time to see how well it sells before offering it nationallyOf all the new products introduced every year in the US, most are not profitable and do not survive in the marketplace.
15 MarketingSimply producing a good and offering it for sale is not enough in today’s competitive worldMarketing is necessary for companies to be successful.A marketing strategy, or plan, combines the 4 P’s of marketing:ProductPricePlacePromotion
16 ProductWhen it comes to product, a company must answer certain questions.What good or service should be produced?What services should be offered with the product?Consider adding warrantiesHow should product be packaged?Consider size, design, color, catch phrases and coupons or rebates.How should product be identified?Consider logos, songs, celebrity endorsements, and packaging.
17 Price Determined by law of supply and demand. Companies must consider the cost of producing, advertising, selling, and distributing the product.Price leadership occurs when competing companies sell their products for similar prices.Price Leadership: practice of setting prices close to those charged by other companies selling similar productsSelling a new product for a low price to entice people to buy it is called penetration pricing.
18 Place Where should the product be sold? Past experience with similar products will help the marketing department make this decision.A cereal company would most likely market a new cereal in grocery stores.Companies with goods that appeal to a limited market would advertise in specialty shops or on the internet.
19 Promotion Promotion: informing customers about product or service Type of promotion depends upon the product, the target customer, and amount of money the company wants to spend.Examples of promotions: direct-mail advertising, free samples, cents-off coupons, and rebates.
20 Product Life CycleProduct Life Cycle: series of stages from first introduction to complete withdrawal from the marketFour stages:IntroductionGrowthMaturityDecline
21 Product Life Cycle Marketing programs are different for each stage. Pricing can be different for each stage.Marketers try to extend the life of product by changing its looks, uses, and the advertising focus.
22 Distribution Channels Chapter 11 Section 3Distribution Channels
23 Channels of Distribution Channels of Distribution: routes by which goods are moved from producers to consumersDecisions about distribution is another function of marketing.Distribution: moving goods from where they are produced to the people who will buy them
24 Wholesalers and Retailers Wholesalers: businesses that purchase large quantities of goods from producers for resale to other businessesRetailers: business that sell consumer goods directly to the public
25 Wholesalers and Retailers Full service wholesalers warehouse goods and deliver them after retailers pay for them.Drop shippers are wholesalers that buy the goods under the condition that the producer will store and ship the goods after the wholesaler has sold them.
26 Wholesalers and Retailers A cash-and-carry wholesaler sells merchandise, but buyer must pay shipping.A truck wholesaler sells and delivers at the same time.
27 Storage and Transportation Storage: storing goods for future sales.Transportation: Moving goods from producers and/or sellers to buyers.The type, size, weight of the good and how fast it is needed factor into storage and transportation.
28 Distribution Channels Warehouse club shopping lets people buy a limited number of models and brands in huge quantities so the warehouse will get favorable prices from manufacturers.Direct marketing is done through catalogs, the Internet, and “space ads.”