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POLICING AMERICA: CHALLENGES AND BEST PRACTICES Seventh Edition By Kenneth J. Peak Pearson Education, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "POLICING AMERICA: CHALLENGES AND BEST PRACTICES Seventh Edition By Kenneth J. Peak Pearson Education, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 POLICING AMERICA: CHALLENGES AND BEST PRACTICES Seventh Edition By Kenneth J. Peak Pearson Education, Inc.

2 POLICING AMERICA: CHALLENGES AND BEST PRACTICES Seventh Edition By Kenneth J. Peak Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Federal and State Agencies: Protecting Our Borders

3 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 2 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak Introduction Police agencies have been greatly altered by the events of 9/11 Federal agencies have undergone considerable change in both structure and function

4 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 3 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak Agencies Within the DHS The Directorate for National Protection and Programs The Science and Technology Directorate The Office of Health Affairs The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Directorate U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) The Office of Intelligence and Analysis The Office of Operations Coordination The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) The Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) Citizenship and Immigration Services The Coast Guard The Secret Service

5 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 4 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak Department of Justice Headed by the attorney general Official legal arm of the U.S. government

6 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 5 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Created in 1908, first known as Bureau of Investigation J. Edgar Hoover focused on transforming the FBI into a professional organization Today, the FBI has 56 field offices, approximately 400 resident agencies, more than 50 foreign liaison posts

7 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 6 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak Priorities of the FBI Three top priority areas –Counterterrorism –Counterintelligence –Cybercrime Other priorities –Public corruption –Civil rights violations –Organized crime –White-collar crime –Major thefts/violent crimes

8 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 7 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak FBI Ancillary Services FBI crime laboratory National Academy “Ten Most Wanted Fugitives” list National Crime Information Center (NCIC) Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)

9 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 8 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) Began in 1869 as unit within IRS Administers the U.S. Criminal Code provisions concerning alcohol and tobacco smuggling and diversion Enforces all federal laws relating to firearms, explosives, and arson Bomb and Arson Tracking System National Response Teams International Response Team

10 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 9 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Began with the passage of the 1914 Harrison Act Today the DEA has primary responsibility for drug and narcotics enforcement, sharing jurisdiction with the FBI

11 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 10 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak DEA Responsibilities The investigation and preparation for the prosecution of suspects connected with illicit drugs seized at U.S. ports of entry and international borders Conduct of all relations with drug-enforcement officials of foreign governments Full coordination and cooperation with state and local police officials on joint drug-enforcement efforts Regulation of the legal manufacture of drugs and other controlled substances

12 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 11 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak U. S. Marshals Service (USMS) Established under the Judiciary Act of U.S. Marshals – 1 per federal court district Responsibilities include –Pursue and arrest DEA fugitives –Pursue escaped federal prisoners –Transport federal prisoners –Provide secure environment for federal courts Special Operations Group Witness Protection Program

13 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 12 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Not a law enforcement agency Participates in undercover and covert operations around the world Engages in research and development and deploys high technology for intelligence purposes Special centers address issues such as counterterrorism, counterintelligence, international organized crime and narcotics trafficking, and arms control intelligence Responsible to the President of the U.S.

14 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 13 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Main function: monitoring and collection of federal income taxes Criminal Investigation Division (CI) –Investigates violations of Internal Revenue Code –Money laundering investigations –Tax and currency violations –Enforce provisions of Bank Secrecy Act –Questionable Refund Program

15 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 14 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) Established in 1970 – part of Treasury Department Offers law enforcement training for personnel from many federal agencies Significant increase in students due to surge in hiring by federal agencies after September 11 attacks

16 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 15 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak State Police and Law Enforcement Agencies State police/highway patrol –General law enforcement functions –Patrol, traffic control, crash investigation, etc. State bureaus of investigation (SBI) –State’s equivalent to FBI –Usually report to the state’s attorney general –Investigate both criminal and civil cases involving the state and/or municipal jurisdictions Hawaii is the only state without a state law enforcement organization

17 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 16 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak State Police Duties Perform a variety of nontraffic functions –SWAT –Search and Rescue –Drug units –Court-related functions – warrants, court security Patrol methods include car patrol, bicycle patrol, foot patrol, marine patrol, motorcycle patrol

18 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 17 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak State Police Duties Special purpose state agencies Limited-purpose units to enforce –Alcoholic beverage laws –Fish and game laws –State statutes/local ordinances on college campuses –Agricultural laws –Commercial vehicle laws Data collection for the purpose of identifying, reducing, preventing bias-based policing

19 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved 18 Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices, 7/e Kenneth J. Peak Career Considerations KSA’s may include –U.S. citizenship –Age requirement –Written test –Oral interview –Writing sample assessment –Medical exam –Drug testing –Background investigation Other minimum qualifications –Basic training –No conviction for domestic violence –Firearms training –Mobility agreement Academic performance may enhance pay scale


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