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The Effectiveness of Public Health Nursing: A Review of Systematic Reviews Lawrie Elliott 1 Iain Crombie 2 Linda Irvine 2 Jane Cantrell 1 Julie Taylor.

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Presentation on theme: "The Effectiveness of Public Health Nursing: A Review of Systematic Reviews Lawrie Elliott 1 Iain Crombie 2 Linda Irvine 2 Jane Cantrell 1 Julie Taylor."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Effectiveness of Public Health Nursing: A Review of Systematic Reviews Lawrie Elliott 1 Iain Crombie 2 Linda Irvine 2 Jane Cantrell 1 Julie Taylor 2 1 School of Nursing and Midwifery University of Dundee 2 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health University of Dundee University of Dundee

2 Aim n Conduct a review of the international scientific literature that gives the greatest coverage of the role of nurses in improving the publics health. n Scientific literature included primary papers and reviews

3 Public health nurse and public health nursing (inclusion criteria) n any nurse including health visitors and midwives n mobilising resources to ensure health n preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health n interventions targeted at individuals and specific groups in society n includes multi-disciplinary interventions

4 Health topics Health Priorities Client Groups Coronary Heart Disease Children & Adolescents Cancers Maternal Accident Prevention Elderly Mental Health Inequalities in Health Lifestyles LifestylesSmoking Abuse of Alcohol Illicit Drug Use Diet Physical Activity Sexual Health

5 Sources of literature Electronic databases ( ) n Medline n Embase n Cinahl n PsychLit

6 Sources of literature Authoritative Bodies n Cochrane Collaboration n Centre for Evidence Based Nursing (UK) n Health Technology Assessment (UK) n Health Education Authority (UK) n Health Education Board for Scotland n Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK) n Public Health Research, Education & Development Program (Canada) n United States Preventive Services Taskforce

7 Sources of literature Experts Experts n Public Health Review Reference Group and Literature Review Sub-Committee n Cochrane Review Groups n Key authors from authoritative groups n Researchers publishing on selected topics

8 Appraising the reviews Abstracts n Relevant to Public Health n Relevant to Nursing n Synthesis of data from primary studies

9 Number of reviews retrieved (n=301) Coronary Heart Disease34 Cancers24 Mental Health17 Accident Prevention10 Child & Adolescent Health70 Maternal Health 30 Care of the Elderly31 Smoking25 Abuse of Alcohol 8 Illicit Drug Use19 Diet16 Physical Activity 9 Sexual Health13 Inequalities in health 2 General33

10 Detailed appraisal Full Paper n n Relevance (inclusion criteria) n n Quality of literature search (data-bases, grey literature, experts) n n Quality assessment of primary papers (clear aims, randomisation, objective outcomes) n n Quality of analysis (heterogeneity, bias)

11 Reviews included (n= 168) and rejected (n= 133) Included Rejected Included Rejected Coronary heart disease 2014 Cancers 8 16 Mental health 9 8 Accident prevention 8 2 Child & Adolescent health Child & Adolescent health Maternal health 27 3 Care of the elderly Smoking 18 7 Abuse of alcohol 3 5 Illicit drug use 7 12 Diet 9 7 Physical activity 8 1 Sexual health 8 5 General 13 20

12 Overview of study outcomes (n= 362) n Strong effect (11%) n Weak effect (42%) n Ineffective (20%) n Harmful (3%) n Insufficient evidence (24%)

13 Challenge of success n Knowledge n Behaviour n Health gain

14 Increasing knowledge n Interactive teaching and BP monitoring (hypertension knowledge in adults) (hypertension knowledge in adults) n Interactive teaching (healthy eating knowledge in school children) (healthy eating knowledge in school children) n Videos in STD clinics (knowledge of STD's and condom use) (knowledge of STD's and condom use)

15 Behaviour change n HIV testing and counselling (increases condom use in sero- discordant couples) (increases condom use in sero- discordant couples) n Psychological interventions (strengthen coping skills in children) n Smoking cessation interventions (smoking cessation in pregnant women) (smoking cessation in pregnant women)

16 Health gain n Strict low fat diets (reduces blood cholesterol in clinic populations) (reduces blood cholesterol in clinic populations) n Education with environmental and legislative change (reduces injury in children) (reduces injury in children) n Behavioural interventions aimed at reducing environmental hazards (reduces falls in the elderly) (reduces falls in the elderly)

17 Features of Success n Interactive teaching n Environmental modification n Theory based n Multi-agency n High risk groups n Long-term/multi-session

18 Unsuccessful Interventions n n Passive information giving n n Poorly structured n n Lack achievable aims n n Non-theory based n n Prohibition rather than safe practice

19 Limitations n Limited coverage a) missed recently published primary papers b)interventions not yet subject to review a) missed recently published primary papers b)interventions not yet subject to review c) qualitative research c) qualitative research n Restricted definition of nurses role in public health (social problems?) n Applicability to UK

20 Strengths n Broad overview of public health nursing n Review aggregated from large number of studies (weight of evidence) studies (weight of evidence) n Comprehensive search n Consistency across health topics n Rapid Reviewing

21 Challenges n Assessing the quality of reviews n Establishing intervention outcomes at the outset n Designing research/evaluation to assess these outcomes n Training nurses in public health

22 Elliott L, Crombie IK, Irvine L, Cantrell J, Taylor J. (2001) The effectiveness of public health nursing: A review of systematic reviews. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh. Available from: The Stationary Office Bookshop 71 Lothian Road Edinburgh, UK EH3 9AZ Tel:(+) ISBN

23 Methods paper Elliott L, Crombie I.K., Irvine L., Cantrell J., Taylor J. The effectiveness of public health nursing: The problems and solutions in carrying out a review of systematic reviews. Journal of Advanced Nursing (in press) Elliott L, Crombie I.K., Irvine L., Cantrell J., Taylor J. The effectiveness of public health nursing: The problems and solutions in carrying out a review of systematic reviews. Journal of Advanced Nursing (in press)

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