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Secondary Data Analysis: Systematic Reviews & Associated Databases

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Presentation on theme: "Secondary Data Analysis: Systematic Reviews & Associated Databases"— Presentation transcript:

1 Secondary Data Analysis: Systematic Reviews & Associated Databases
Prof. Eileen Savage OMCYA Keeping Children Safe Summer School, 12th – 16th September 2011, UCC.

2 What is a Systematic Review?
a concise scientific investigation, with pre-planned methods that summarise, appraise, synthesise and communicate the results of multiple primary studies (Cooke et al, 1997; Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, 2008). ie Research on Research with findings of existing data becoming raw data Differs from a narrative review/ traditional literature review

3 Traditional Review vs. Systematic Review
(Nasseri-Moghaddeam & Malekzadeh 2006)


5 Growth of Systematic Reviews

6 Systematic Reviews – Origins of Growth
Expanding volume of published & unpublished literature Conflicting findings across studies leading to ‘uncertainty’ Contributes to Evidence Based Movement

7 When to Do a Systematic Review
When there is ‘uncertainty’ about the effectiveness of interventions in practice When key questions remain unanswered e.g. about treatments, interventions, practices, experiences etc… To inform practice/policy with best available research evidence To identify what is known/not known in an area to guide future research (includes research methods) (Petticrew & Roberts 2007)

8 Where to find a Systematic Review
Peer Reviewed Journals (search bibliography databases) Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Cochrane Library; several Groups) Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) Health Technology Assessment Database NHS Economic Evaluation Database The Campbell Collaboration Library (Groups e.g. Crime & Justice; Education; Social Welfare; Methods; Communication & internationalization; Users Groups. The Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre (EPPI-Centre), University of London. (Education; Health Promotion; Employment; Social care; Crime and Justice) Others

9 Structure of Systematic Review e.g.
Introduction/Background Questions/Aim & Objectives Criteria for considering studies Search Methods Methods of the Review (e.g screening reading papers; quality assessment; data extraction) Results Discussion Conclusions

10 Criteria for Including/Excluding Studies
Types of Studies (see hierarchy of evidence) Types of Participants Types of Outcomes Link to Questions being asked

11 Hierarchy of Evidence Meta-synthesis Qualitative studies

12 Search Method Search Terms Databases +/- Hand searching +/- Reference lists +/-Grey Literature +/- Contacting authors (Refer to Booth et al on standards for Reporting Search Methods)

13 Search Strategy: CINAHL with Full Text (EBSCO)
Search Strategy: Embase (Elsevier) Date of Search 30th March 2011 Years Covered January 1990 to March 2011 Complete Strategy cystic fibrosis. ti,ab,de. mucoviscidosis. ti,ab,de. 1 or 2 'clinical trial'. ti,ab,de. 'trial'. ti,ab,de. random*'. ti,ab,de. 4 or 5 or 6 educat*. ti, ab, de. program*. ti,ab,de. 8 or 9 self care ti, ab, de. selfcare. ti,ab,de. self management. ti, ab,de manag*. ti, ab,de. 11 or 12 or 13 or 14 10 or 15 3 and 7 and 16 Date of Search 30th March 2011 Years Covered January 1990 to March 2011 Complete Strategy cystic fibrosis.TX. mucoviscidosis.TX. 1 or 2 clinical trial.PT. trial.TX. random*TX. 4 or 5 or 6 educat*.TX. program*TX. 8 or 9 self care.TX. self-care.TX. selfcare. TX. self management. TX. self-management.TX. manag*.TX. 11 or 12 or 13 or 14 or 15 or 16 10 or 17 3 and 7 and   Language Restrictions None


15 Methods – Screening for Inclusion/ Exclusion
Titles & Abstracts – In/Unsure/Out Read in full –> in/unsure /out

16 Quality Assessment of Individual Studies
Quality threshold for inclusion ie exclude poor quality studies Assessment of Quality may be part of SR How - No –’gold standard’ exists - Checklists available e.g. CASP - Quality Scales/Criteria

17 Data Extraction Use a data extraction form (s)
2 or more reviewers / cross-check Extract details relevant to Questions/ Objectives Present raw data in report – table format

18 Data Analysis & Synthesis
Collation & summary of results Present in tabular form/forest plots/other + descriptive narrative account +/- Meta-analysis, if appropriate (not possible with heterogeneity ie cannot pool apples with oranges for the purpose of statistical analysis as one data set)

19 Results, Discussion, Implications

20 Critical Appraisal of Systematic Reviews
The PRISMA Statement: standards for reporting SRs & Meta-analyses Critical Appraisal Tool Kit for SRs (CASP)

21 Website on Critical Appraisal Tools (covers a range of methods)
At: Division of Health Sciences International Centre for Allied Health Evidence

22 References To follow

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