Presentation on theme: "Nutrition and Lupus: Myths and Realities"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nutrition and Lupus: Myths and Realities Jennifer H Anolik, MD, PhDDivision of Allergy, Immunology & RheumatologyUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochester, New York2009Information to be covered includes diet modifications for general cardiovascular health, how what you eat may impact your lupus in a positive or negative way, the role of vitamin supplementation in lupus and in particular the importance of vitamin D
2 Lupus at the University of Rochester The Lupus ClinicAutoimmunity Center of Excellence: Our Division currently provides the leadership for this University-wide NIH-funded multidisciplinary center, one of only 8 in the country. Ongoing Lupus projects in the division under this center (Sanz, Looney, Anolik) include:Unraveling the mechanisms that underlie the breakdown of B-cell tolerance in SLEDefining abnormalities in B cells in SLEDelineating the role of cytokines like interferon and BAFF in SLEUnderstanding the immunological consequence of B-cell depletion and other targeted therapies in the treatment of SLEClinical Trials Program: Investigation of new, targeted biological interventions in SLE. The AIR unit has an active program in clinical trials in systemic lupus erythematosus supported in part by a grant from the Lupus Clinical Trials Consortium.
3 Topics for todayDietCardiovascular health: low sodium, low cholesterol, low saturated fat dietOmega-3-fatty acids over omega-6Dietary supplementsVitaminsOsteoporosis is common: Vitamin D and calcium?Value of other vitaminsHerbal supplements/otherLittle data
4 Summary NO SPECIFIC DIET FOR THE TREATMENT OF SLE EXISTS However, based on animal studies and limited human studies…Possible adverse implications for SLEExcess caloriesExcess proteinHigh fat, especially saturated and omega-6-fatty acidsL-canavanine found in alfalfaPossible beneficial dietary compoundsVitamin EVitamin ASeleniumFish oils (omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids)Primrose oilFlaxseedPlant herb (Tripterygium wilfordii)DHEACalcium and vitamin DLimitations to this research are that the findings are based on relatively fewstudies, many of which were without control groups or extrapolated from animal models.No large-scale studies have been done with LE patients to substantiate the benefit, if any,of these individual dietary interventions, and if they were conducted, the remission andexacerbation pattern of LE may interfere with elucidating their effectiveness.
5 Complementary/alternative medicine Complementary and alternative medicine includes all those types of medicine that, when mentioned by a patient, elicit a blank look from their physicians, and cause the physician to leave the room in a hurryComplementary and alternative medicine includes all those types of medicine that, when mentioned by a patient, elicit a blank look from their physicians, and cause the physician to leave the room in a hurry
6 NCCAM DefinitionComplementary and alternative medicine, as defined by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), is a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine.Also defined as ‘diagnosis, treatment and/or prevention which complements mainstream medicine by contributing to a common whole, by satisfying a demand not met by orthodoxy or by diversifying the conceptual frameworks of medicine’.
7 Multifactorial nature of autoimmune disease Triggering factorsSusceptibilityGenesEnvironmentalFactorsExogenous or Endogenous AntigenAntecedentsGeneticsDietaryEnvironmentalOccupationalLearnedTraumaticDisease-inducedDrug-inducedImmuneResponse(cytokine and effector functions)TraumaMicrobesAntigenesToxinsRadiationDrugsOutcome?
8 Needs a functional medicine approach Exogenous or Endogenous AntigenTriggering factorsSusceptibilityGenesEnvironmentalFactorsAntecedentsGeneticsDietaryEnvironmentalOccupationalLearnedTraumaticDisease-inducedDrug-inducedImmuneResponse(cytokine and effector functions)Modulating factorsNutritional BalanceToleranceProtection from InfectionAllergyAutoimmunityInflammatoryfunctionEnergy ProductionOxidative StressGI functionNeuroendocrinefunctionStructuralMind-Body
9 Usage of CAM is common4 out of 10 Americans used CAM for chronic conditions629 million visits with $27 billion being spent each yearEstimated that 60-90% of patients with arthritis have used CAMAbout 65% of SLE patients have been reported to have used CAM in some studiesLupus patients who use CAM tend to be younger and better educatedAmong the 707 patients, 352 (49.8%) were found to use alternative therapies and at similar rates across Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Users were younger and better educated than nonusers, exhibited poorer levels of self-rated health status and satisfaction with medical care, and had minimal to no objective evidence of worse disease (ac- cording to the revised Systemic Lupus Activit y Measure instrument).Moore et al. Arthritis and Rheumatism 2000
10 Usage of CAM in SLE Moore et al. Arthritis and Rheumatism 2000 Every second SLE patient seen in a tertiay care center would be expected to use at least 1 form of alternative medicine. The most frequently used therapies are massage and relaxation techniquesMoore et al. Arthritis and Rheumatism 2000
11 Evidence based medicine Grades of evidenceCase reportsCase seriesCase controlled studiesCohort studiesRandomized controlled trialsNeed to be cautious about products not approved by the FDA or the ACR. Considerations:What is the proof? Is it effective in lupus?Is it un-safe?Dietary supplements are regulated as foods, not drugs, so there could be quality issues in the manufacturing process
12 First do no harm!Supplements can interact with prescribed or over-the-counter medicines, and other supplements"Natural" does not necessarily mean "safe" or "effective." Overall, there is not much rigorous research available on the effectiveness and safety of botanical and other supplements
13 First do no harm Examples of potentially harmful use of CAM: Many herbs can interfere with prescription drugs, or can be dangerous if taken in large quantities. Always check with your doctor before taking any herbal remedy or dietary supplement.Some herbs contain undeclared pharmaceutical compounds- such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatoriesSome contain estrogenic activityBeware of ‘stimulants of the immune system’Use of unproven remedies as a substitute for conventional therapyHerbals are made from the flowers, leaves, roots, berries, seeds, gel, bark & aerial parts of various plants.
14 Herbal remediesHerbal remedies promoted for the treatment of arthritis include ginger, Chinese Thunder God Vine, willow bark extract, feverfew, cat's claw and stinging nettle.Ginger and willow bark extract: Evidence for pain relief; But contain chemicals that are similar to conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds (NSAIDs); don’t use with warfarinCat's Claw - May increase the risk of bleeding if taken with blood-thinning drugs (e.g. Warfarin, Heparin)Stinging Nettle - May increase the effects of tranquilisers and sedative drugs. May decrease the effect of certain cardiac and diabetic drugsThunder God Vine- Used for over 2000 years in Chinese medicine, 5 open trials- total of 248 patients with lupus with improved fever, rash, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, and laboratory abnormalities. Some serious side effects: GI upset, infertilityEvening Primrose Oil (EPO). EPO was reported to increase survival time in autoimmunemice,95 and this may be due to its gamma-linolenic acid (19%) content from which PGE1 isformed. Several studies support the role of PGE1 treatment alone in delaying the onsetand severity of lupus in autoimmune animals This beneficial effect of PGE1 might bedue its anti-inflammatory effects via membrane stabilization and lowering lymphocyteactivity.99While there is some evidence that ginger and willow bark extract may relieve pain, these remedies contain chemicals that are similar to conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds (NSAIDs) like naproxen (Aleve) and ibuprofen (Advil). NSAIDs may cause inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Further, they can interfere with blood clotting and lead to fluid retention, causing problems for people with high blood pressure or heart failure.Many herbs can interfere with prescription drugs, or can be dangerous if taken in large quantities. Always check with your doctor before taking any herbal remedy or dietary supplement.Bromelain (Pineapple enzyme) - May increase the effect of blood-thinning drugs (e.g. Warfarin, Heparin).Cat's Claw - May increase the risk of bleeding if taken with blood-thinning drugs (e.g. Warfarin, Heparin).Cayenne Pepper - Reports of possible interaction with MAO inhibitors and antihypertensive therapy (used to lower blood pressure). In large quantities, may cause damage to liver and kidneys.Chamomile - Contains coumarin, but chamomile's effects on the body's anticoagulation system have not been studied. If used with anticoagulants such as warfarin, close monitoring by a doctor is advised.Devil's Claw - May interfere with antacids, cardiac or diabetic medications. Use with caution is taking NSAIDs, which can irritate the stomach, as it can stimulate stomach acids.DHEA - May cause liver damage if taking azathioprine or methotrexate. Can increase insulin resistance or sensitivity in diabetics.Dong Quai - May interact with blood-thinning medications (e.g. Warfarin, Heparin). May increase sun sensitivity.Echinacea - May be toxic to the liver if used for more than eight weeks. Should not be used with drugs that can cause liver problems, such as anabolic steroids, amiodarone, methotrexate and ketoconazole. Should not be given with immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids and cyclosporine because it can stimulate the immune system.Evening primrose oil and borage (GLA) - Should not be used with anticonvulsants because they may lower the seizure threshold. Not recommended for patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. May increase the effects of anticoagulants and NSAIDs.Feverfew - Effect on migraine headaches may be compromised by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen. May increase blood-thinning effect of Warfarin or other anticoagulants, including NSAIDs. Not to be used if pregnant, as it may cause miscarriage.Fish Oil (Omega-3 fatty acids) - May increase the blood-thinning effects of anticoagulants and NSAIDs.Garlic - Should not be used with warfarin or other anticoagulents, because it affects clotting. May also interact with hypoglycemic medications, and anti-inflammatory drugs.Ginger - Should not be used with warfarin because it affects clotting. Do not use if you have gallstones. Large quantities may interfere with cardiac, antidiabetic or anticoagulant (Warfarin, Heparin) therapy.Gingko - Can inhibit clotting so should not be used with aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or with anticoagulants such as warfarin or heparin. Also should not be used in conjunction with anticonvulsant drugs used by epileptics, such as carbamazepine, phenytoin and phenobarbital, or with tricyclic antidepressants.Ginseng - Should not be used with warfarin, heparin, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs because it can inhibit clotting. Also may cause headache, tremulousness and manic episodes in patients treated with phenelzine sulfate. Should not be used with estrogens or corticosteroids because it may add to those drugs' side effects. May also interfere with the heart drug digoxin or with digoxin monitoring. Should not be used by diabetics because it can affect blood glucose levels.Goldenseal - Should be avoided by people with high blood pressure. May interfere with anticoagulant therapy (Heparin).Karela - Should not be used by patients with diabetes because it can affect blood glucose levels.Kava - Should not be used with the tranquilliser alprazolam because it may result in coma. Do not take with sleeping medications or tranquilisers.Kelp - May interfere with thyroid replacement therapies.Liquorice - Can offset the effect of the diuretic drug spironolactone. May also interfere with heart drug digoxin or with digoxin monitoring. Potassium loss due to other drugs, e.g., thiazide diuretics, can be increased.Melatonin - Appears to boost the immune system, so should be avoided by people with autoimmune diseases including lupus.St. John's Wort - Can produce skin reactions to light so fair-skinned users may wish to take care and anyone taking other drugs that cause light sensitivity, such as piroxicam or tetracycline, may want to avoid this herb. The active ingredient in St. John's Wort is uncertain, so it should not be used with two common types of psychiatric drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Tannic acid in the herb may inhibit absorption of iron. Can block the effects of drugs, including oral contraceptives, tricyclic antidepressants, cyclosporin, several heart drugs and warfarin.Stinging Nettle - May increase the effects of tranquilisers and sedative drugs. May decrease the effect of certain cardiac and diabetic drugs.Valerian - Should not be used with barbiturates, such as thiopental and pentobarbital -can cause excessive sedation. Do not use if taking tranquilisers or sleep medications, as it increases the effect.White willow bark - Aspirin is made from the drug salaicin, which is contained in White Willow Bark .Do not take with aspirin or other NSAIDs, as it increases their effects. May increase the effects of anticoagulant drugs (e.g. Warfarin, Heparin).Which herbs to useArthritisCat's claw, Aloe juice, Heartsease, Sweet violet, Cowslip, Thyme, Borage, Rosemary, Meadowsweet, Evening primrose, Willow, Yucca.Muscle aches & painsBlack cohosh, Willow, Thyme, Meadowsweet, Cramp bark.HeadacheWhite willow, Passiflora, Valerian, Feverfew, Wild lettuce, Lavender, Black cohosh, Peppermint, Vervain.Circulation problemsHawthorn, Garlic, Ginkgo Biloba, Cayenne, Yarrow, Angelica, Mustard, Walnut.Mouth ulcersMyrrh, Liquorice.DepressionGinseng, Avena Sativa, Kava Kava, Cayenne, Cowslip, Rose, Thyme, Vervain.Consider also - Flower essences.InsomniaValerian, Passiflora, Chamomile, Lemon Balm, Kava kava, Hops, Catnip, Linden, Vervain, Cowslip. Lavender, Marjoram.MigraineFeverfew, Valerian, Vervain, Cayenne, Rosemary, Lavender.BruisingYarrow, Arnica(ointment), Witch hazel, Calendula(ointment), Lavender(ointment).Hypertension (High blood pressure)Hawthorn berry, Garlic, Dandelion, Lime blossom.FatigueLiquorice, Ginseng, Gotu Kola, Borage, Vervain.Consider also - Flower essences. Plant Herb. Tripterygium wilfordii hook F (TWH), also known as Thunder God Vine, is aplant that has been used in China for more than 2000 years to treat SLE and rheumatoidarthritis In vitro tests support this traditional practice through evidence that the planthas immunosuppressive qualities.110 Ramagolam reported that TWH inhibitedlymphoproliferation (mitogen-stimulated), production of cytokines by moncytes andlymphocytes, and prostaglandin E2 production via the cyclooxygenase (COX-2) pathway.111Despite the promising benefit of TWH, it is difficult to evaluate the use of herbaltherapies since their apparent successes and sometimes serious side-effects are oftennot documented, particularly for renal patients.
15 EchinaceaEchinacea is popularly believed to be an immunostimulator, stimulating the body's immune system and warding off infectionsA controlled double-blind study in the NEJM found that echinacea extracts had "no clinically significant effects" on rates or duration of infection after viral exposureA controlled double-blind study from the University of Virginia School of Medicine and documented in the New England Journal of Medicine stated that echinacea extracts had "no clinically significant effects" on rates of infection or duration or intensity of symptoms. The effects held when the herb was taken immediately following infectious viral exposure and when taken as a prophylaxis starting a week prior to exposure.
16 EchinaceaIn one investigation by an independent consumer testing laboratory, five of eleven selected retail echinacea products failed quality testingReported adverse effects: allergy, TTP, leucopenia, abdominal pain, nausea, dysuria, arthralgia, myalgiaShould not be taken by persons with progressive systemic and auto-immune disorders; should not be used with immunosuppressants or hepatotoxic drugsFour of the failing products contained measured levels of phenols believed to be related to potency below the levels stated on the labels. One failing product was contaminated with lead
17 DHEA Although not a nutrient or a dietary supplement, this steroid hormone can be purchased over-the-counterNaturally occurring adrenal steroid that is secreted mainly as DHEA sulfateWorks as a substrate for androgens and estrogensAlso has immunomodulatory effectsLarge multi-center RCT with n=38186/147 in the prasterone group (200 mg) vs 65/146 in placebo group had either stabilization or improvement in their diseaseLipid profile improved significantly and complement levels decreasedAcne and hirsutism were the most frequent side effectsArthritis and Rheum46:2924, 2002
18 ProbioticsProbiotics are dietary supplements of live bacteria or yeasts thought to be healthy for the host organism. According to the currently adopted definition by FAO/WHO, probiotics are:‘Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host’
19 ProbioticsIntended to assist the body’s naturally occurring gut flora; claims to strengthen the immune systemIssues: Costly, lack of hard evidenceRecent data supported by the LRI showing benefit in lupus prone mice (FASEB Journal. 2008;22:lb477)ABSTRACTThe lack of exposure to infectious agents in industrialized countries may compromise the development of effective immunoregulation. Microorganisms can evade the immune response via induction of tolerogenic APC and regulatory cells, and have been shown to prevent the development of autoimmune diseases. Probiotics, including Lactobacilli, from the normal flora play an important role in the immune system development. The goal of this study was to test whether probiotics prevent lupus development in (NZBxNZW)F1 mice and identify the mechanisms mediating protection. We have found that feeding Lactobacilli could delay lupus onset and severity. This protection was associated with an increase in the percentage of CD4+Foxp3+ cells and APC expressing B7-1 and B7-2 in the lymphoid organs, and production of high levels of IL-10 by T cells upon stimulation in vitro. Moreover, bone marrow-derived DC (BM-DC) stimulated with Lactobacilli also produced copious amounts of IL-10, and when transferred into (NZBxNZW)F1 mice delayed lupus onset and severity. In addition, significant increases in IL-10 levels were detected in most of the sera from mice injected with Lactobacilli-treated BM-DC. Altogether these data suggest that IL-10 may play a significant role in probiotic-mediated protection against lupus either directly, by suppressing pro-inflammatory responses, and/or by inducing regulatory cells. Supported by LRI.
20 Cardiovascular health: Nutrition and lupusCardiovascular health:diets low in saturated fat, omega-6-fatty acids, and cholesterolBenefits of omega-3-fatty acidsVitamins
21 Nutrition studiesBeneficial effects of protein and caloric restriction?Severe caloric restriction delays the onset of glomerulonephritis in rats and mice (NZB/W)Protein restriction especially of phenylalanine and tryptophan have a beneficial effect on lupus in ratsIn general- not recommended: no evidence in humans; exception would be in the setting of kidney dysfunction
22 Nutrition studiesDiets rich in saturated fats and omega-6 fatty acids, and L-canavarine (alfalfa) have a deleterious effect on lupus in miceLittle to no human studies to date have confirmed these findingsOne of the few human studies in which SLE patients reduced their omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake found that after one year, the number of patients with active SLE dropped from 11 to 3. Problems of interpretation:Spontaneous improvement, placebo effects, and lack of a control groupResearchers studying the cholesterol-lowering effect of alfalfaseeds observed signs of SLE-like symptoms in both laboratory animals and a few humancase studies Two human patients were reported to experience symptoms of malaise,lethargy, depression, and arthralgias after ingesting 8-15 alfalfa tablets daily.45 In vitroexperiments suggest that L-canavanine, an amino acid in alfalfa products, acts onsuppressor-inducer T cells to regulate antibody synthesis and lymphocyte proliferation.46Feeding L-canavanine to autoimmune mice resulted in increased antibody production andhigher renal histology scores.47
23 Foods high in omega-6- fatty acids Sunflower, poppyseed, corn, wheatgerm, walnut, cottonseed, peanut, and sesame oilMayonnaiseLiquid margarineBrazil nutsPine nutsPumpkin kernels
24 Fish oil and Omega-3-fatty acids in lupus Majority of mice studies show that fish oils retard the development of lupus in miceHuman studies show modest resultsIn 1 RCT, 8/17 lupus patients given 6-8 grams of fish oil per day improved compared with 2/17 given placeboIn 2 other uncontrolled studies patients given large doses of fish oil did not show any improvements in DNA, immune complexes, or renal parametersIn a double blind study of 26 lupus patients who were followed for 2 years, there was no improvement in renal parameters or DNA antibodies. However, lipids did improve in the treated group.In a small uncontrolled study of 9 patients with lupus, 30 grams of flax seed oil conferred some beneficial effects on renal parameters and atherogenesisRecent small randomized study (3 gm) of 60 patients found small but significant improvements in disease activityWright SA, O'prey FM, McHenry MT, Leahey WJ, Devine AB, Duffy EM, Johnston DG, Finch MB, Bell AL, McVeigh GE.Musgrave Park Hospital, United Kingdom.OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical effect of dietary supplementation with low dose omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on disease activity and endothelial function in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. METHODS: A 24 week randomised double-blind placebo-controlled parallel trial of the effect of 3g of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on 60 patients with SLE was performed. Serial measurements of disease activity using the revised Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM-R) and British Isles Lupus Assessment Group index of disease activity for SLE (BILAG), endothelial function using flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD), oxidative stress using platelet 8-isoprostanes and analysis of platelet membrane fatty acids were taken at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. RESULTS: In the fish oil group there was a significant improvement at 24 weeks in SLAM-R (from 9.4+/-3.0 to 6.3+/-2.5, p<0.001); in BILAG (from 13.6+/-6.0 to 6.7+/-3.8, p<0.001); in FMD (from 3.0% ( ) to 8.9% ( ), p<0.001) and in platelet 8-isoprostanes (from 177pg/mg protein ( ) to 90 pg/mg protein ( ), p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Low dose dietary supplementation with omega-3 fish oils in SLE not only has a therapeutic effect on disease activity but also improves endothelial function and reduces oxidative stress and may therefore confer cardiovascular benefits.Wright et al., Ann Rheum Dis. 2007
25 Omega-3 fatty acids Fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, halibut Canola Oil, flaxseed oil, hemp oil, soybean oilWalnuts, flaxseeds, pumpkin seedsSoy and tofuGreen leafy vegetablesSome eggs are enhanced with omega-3s
26 Flax seedTwo studies, one with mice and the other with human subjects, suggest that flaxseed may be beneficial in SLEEight humans with SLE were given 30 grams of flaxseed mixed in with their cereal or juice, and were reported to have improved renal functionFlaxseed contains natural antagonist of platelet activating factor, high in omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linoleic acidPossible allergic reactionsFlaxseed. Two studies, one with mice and the other with human subjects, suggest thatflaxseed may be beneficial.A plant food
27 Atherosclerotic disease in SLE Clinical CAD is very common in lupus cohorts: 6-10%Women with SLE have a 5-6-fold increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to the general populationWomen aged years have a 50-fold increased risk!!SLE patients are more likely to have certain classic risk factors: HTN, diabetes, obesity‘SLE factors’Bruce, Best Practice Res Clin Rheum 19:823, 2005
28 Overall survival in lupus has improved CV dzGabriel S et al Arthritis Rheum 1999;42:46-50
29 Bimodal mortality pattern Early mortality in lupus is due to active SLE or associated complications such as infectionLate death (>5 years after diagnosis) are frequently associated with atherosclerotic complicationsUrowitz et al. Am J of Med 60:221, 1976
30 What can lupus patients do to decrease their risk of heart disease?
31 Ways to improve risk factors without medications Reduced intake of saturated fat and cholesterolIncreased physical activityWeight controlStop smokingBruce, Best Practice Res Clin Rheum 19:823, 2005
32 VitaminsThere have not been adequate scientific studies proving that specific vitamins are helpful in treating lupus. However, it is important to have a good, balanced diet to maintain health
33 Vitamin EVitamin E has been advocated for lupus patients since the 1940sSeveral positive studies have been reportedA closer look at the literature shows several negative studies as wellA recent meta-analysis of literature showed that high dose vitamin E over 400IU per day was associated with a higher mortality and higher incidence of heart attacks and strokesMORE IS NOT NECESSARILY BETTER!For a long time it was felt that anti-oxidant vitamins like E and C have beneficial effects for heart disease which they likely do but….Several observational studies published in the 1990s suggested that higher vitamin E intake is associated with a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) , ,  and . The Nurses Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study for example showed that higher vitamin E intake from supplements for more than 2 years significantly reduced the relative risk for coronary heart disease (CHD)  and . Results from these studies were the catalyst for randomized controlled vitamin E intervention trials. The majority of these intervention trials, however, did not support the hypothesis derived from the observational studies  and . Recently, unexpectedly, two meta-analyses of vitamin E intervention trials of CVD, cancer, and other diseases, reported an increased relative risk of all-cause mortality. Further, two individual vitamin E intervention trials reported increased risk of heart failure
34 Vitamin AVitamin A has been reported to have beneficial effects in SLE3 patients with skin lesions were given vitamin A in high doses. In 1 week all lesions cleared up.Other researchers have reported an improvement in immune function parameters with vitamin A supplementationCaution advised to patients using vitamin A from animal sources as these are fat soluble and can accumulate and cause toxicity
35 SeleniumSelenium supplementation has been reported to be beneficial in lupus miceNo human studiesCaution advised as excess selenium can cause diarrhea, vomiting, hair loss, skin lesions, and nervous system dysfunction
36 Supplements to avoid Those containing: -protein (high meat diet) -omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids-zinc (also found in Brazil nuts and oysters, some supplemented cereals)
37 Vitamin D Vitamin D and osteoporosis Osteoporosis is common in SLE recent observational study of 163 women with SLEmedian age of 4755% post-menopausal, 52% taking steroids, 85% h/o steroids23% osteoporotic, 56% osteopenicVitamin D is important for bone health; vitamin D deficiency is extremely commonRecommend MVI with calcium and vitamin D in SLE to prevent and treat osteoporosisAlmehed et al. Rheum 46:1185, 2007 “Prevalence and risk factors of osteoporosis in female SLE patients”163 women with SLE in Sweden. Observational cross-sectional study. Median age was 47, 55% were post-menopausal, 52% were taking steroids (median dose 5 mg) (85% had h/o steroid use). 23% were osteoporotic in at least one measured location (56% osteopenic). Bisphosphonates were used by 27% taking steroids and 35% with osteoporosis. High age and low weight were associated with low BMD. Also high SLICC, ESR, and combinations of DMARDs, but not steroids either current or cumulative on multiple regression. With multiple regression analysis disease duration was not significant. By simple regression even SLEDAI was not significant.Almehed et al. Rheum 46:1185, 2007 “Prevalence and risk factors of osteoporosis in female SLE patients”
38 Vitamin D and lupus Vitamin D and autoimmunity Vitamin D has potent anti-inflammatory properties, suppressing immune cells that take part in the autoimmune reactionVitamin D and LupusSupplementation of lupus mice with Vitamin D improves diseaseSome studies have found a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in SLERheumatology (Oxford) Vitamin D deficiency in systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalence, predictors and clinical consequences.; Ruiz-Irastorza et al. ; ARD 2007 Vitamin D and autoimmunity: new aetiological and therapeutic considerations, Arnson et al.
39 Nutrition studies Recent study of 92 SLE patients 75% and 15% presented with vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, respectively.Female sex (P = 0.001), treatment with HCQ (P = 0.014) and treatment with calcium and vitamin D (P = 0.049) predicted higher levels of 25(OH)D.Photosensitivity [odds ratio (OR) 3.5] and photoprotection (OR 5.7) predicted vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, respectively.Patients with vitamin D deficiency had a higher degree of fatigue as quantified by a 0-10 VAS (mean 5.32 vs 4.03, P = 0.08).No relation was seen between vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency and disease duration, SLEDAI or SLICC-ACR indexes.ACE study of vitamin D supplementation in SLE
40 Some points to remember There are no magic cures for lupus. Do not be conned into spending money on a product that claims to be a 'cure-all'. If in doubt consult your doctor.Do your homework- ?safety, ?efficacyNatural Isn't Necessarily SaferHerbal supplements are virtually unregulatedLittle data regarding herbal treatments and lupusplease be careful when taking alternative medicinesavoid any herbal treatments that claim to ‘stimulate the immune system’
41 General recommendations on nutrition Healthy well-balanced diet is advisable for general health, cardiovascular health, and possibly lupus specifically.Data for omega-3-fatty acidsWHAT YOU CAN DO-lifestyle modification to decrease risk of CV diseaseBasic MVI with daily recommended amounts of vitamins is reasonableException to this is that vitamin D may require extra supplementation
42 Resources for more information Arthritis foundation:National Center for Complementary and alternative medicine:Johns Hopkins review of alternative therapies for arthritis