Presentation on theme: "Animal Science 2012- 2013 Red Lodge High School. Academic Honesty PLAGERISM WILL NOT BE TOLERATED. Paraphrasing or quoting anothers work without citing."— Presentation transcript:
Academic Honesty PLAGERISM WILL NOT BE TOLERATED. Paraphrasing or quoting anothers work without citing the source is a form of academic misconduct. ACADEMIC HONESTY is expected by all students. Presenting others ideas as your own or to permit someone else to use your work without acknowledgement is academic misconduct.
What is the function of Animal Agriculture Production of food and fiber
Animal Agriculture All societies use domestic animals as a source of food, consumer products or companionship Domestic animals supply humans many different things –Food –Clothing –By-products for consumer goods or feed –Power –Research
Contribution of Animal Products to the World Diet Animal products comprise ~16% of total calories and 37% of total protein. 30% of total calories in some developed counties and 50% of the protein supply less than 20% of protein in some developing countries. The contribution of animal products to food supply has increased in most of the world Livestock Revolution From early 70s through the early 90s meat consumption in developing countries grew 3x more than in developed countries
Contribution of Animal Products to the World Diet In general, as standard of living increases, the country tends to have a higher consumption of animal products. Mechanization largely responsible for increased food production Mechanization made it possible for fewer farmers to feed more people –1940 1 farmer fed 11people –19951 farmer fed 94 people
What happens to consumption of animal products with increasing standard of living? Consumption increases
Disposable Income Spent on Food YearAnnual Income Amount Spent on Food HomeAway% total 19602,26530110917.8 19703,48938019414.1 19808,42181853013.8 198511,86199171712.6 199016,2361,2421,01311.7 199519,7031,3201,16511.2
Contributions of Various Food Groups to the World Food Supply Food GroupCalories (%)Protein (%) Cereals5045 Roots, tubers, and pulses87 Nuts, oils, vegetable fats114 Sugar and sugar products82 Vegetables and fruits75 All animal Products1637 Meat(7)(16) Eggs(1)(3) Fish(1)(7) Milk(5)(10) Other(2)(1)
World Meat Supply Majority of the world meat supply comes from cattle, buffalo, swine, sheep, goats and horses Other sources common to other countries are alpaca, llama, yak, deer, elk, antelope, kangaroo, rabbit, guinea pig, capybara, fowl other than chicken (duck, turkey, goose, guinea fowl, pigeon), and wild game
Role of Animal Products in a Balanced Diet Animal Foods Provide: –High quality protein –Zinc, Iron, Calcium –Vitamin A, D, E, K, and B12 –Fats and lipids Plants Provide: –Carbohydrates (energy) –Vitamins –Minerals –Fats and lipids
Problems with animal products No fiber or roughage Excessive protein possible Carbohydrate deficient but rich in fats Deficient in vitamin C Cholesterol
Animal Contribution to People Milk is one of the largest single sources of food from animals. Milk from cattle most common in the United States Other sources of milk in the world –Buffalo, sheep, goat, alpaca, camel, reindeer and yak
Animal Production Efficiency Animal production is considered a resource inefficient practice because it takes more grain to produce a pound of meat than it would to feed a person. –This is true only if feeding animals food that humans could consume. –Most grains used for livestock production is not suitable for human consumption –Ruminants consume forages that humans could not digest
Animal Production Efficiency Animals grazed on land not fit for crop production 2/3rds of the world is permanent pasture, range and meadow Of this 60% of the world land mass is unsuitable for cultivated crop production Animal production does not compete with human use. Animal intermediaries provide a means to utilize land that would be unproductive for humans
Food Contributions Conquering Hunger –Increase literacy rates –Reduce poverty –Improve health care –Enhance agricultural production –Improve the total food system infrastructure
Food Contributions Eighty-five percent of the worlds population desire food of animal origin in its diet Animal products more palatable than plants? Animal products higher class? Consumers tend to increase their animal products consumption when income increases.
Clothing and Nonfood Wool, hair, hides and pelts are used for clothing, bedding, housing and carpets. Animal wastes are used for fertilizers Inedible tallow and grease used in soaps and animal feeds and a source of fatty acids for lubricants and industrial uses. Fatty acids can be used to produce synthetic rubber, food emulsifiers, plasticizers, floor waxes, candles, paints, varnishes, printing inks and pharmaceuticals Gelatin from hides, skins and bones used in foods, films and glues
Work and Power More than half the countries of the world keep animals primarily for work Most are buffalo or cattle but horse, mules, camels, and llamas are also used for draft purposes. Twenty percent of the worlds population depends largely or entirely on animals for moving goods.
Work and Power Animals provide 52% of the cultivation power in developing countries An additional 26% of cultivation power is provided by human labor Developed countries use tractor for 82% of their cultivation
Companionship, Recreation and Creativity Many species of animals qualify as companions where people derive pleasure from them The contribution of animals as companions is meaningful, though hard to quantify Many animals are used for recreation –Bull fighting, rodeos and other sports
Human Health Research Laboratory animals (rats, mice) are commonly used to provide valuable information for improving human life. Large domestic farm animals are used less often because of cost of maintenance costs. Farm animals serve as research models for approximately 200 human diseases