Presentation on theme: "NAVIGATING DIFFERENT DIETS IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM Bariah Dardari, M.D, FAAP American Hospital Dubai."— Presentation transcript:
NAVIGATING DIFFERENT DIETS IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM Bariah Dardari, M.D, FAAP American Hospital Dubai
What the diet have to do with it??? Increased prevalence in Autism>>environmental factors>>Diet Parents survey on ARI list diet as the most successful intervention Global displacement of traditional foods accompanied by malnutrition and chronic disease When traditional people adopt modern diets there are increased rates of CVD, diabetes, cancer, hyperlipidemia,hypertension, and obesity. we face the Dilemma where traditional high-fat foods also contain high amounts of PCBs, mercury, pesticides, and other contaminants.
What the diet have to do with it??? Ketogenic diet and seizures Feingold diet and ADHD : Pesller et al. 2010 pilot study in Netherland Celiac disease
What the diet have to do with it??? previous reports indicate that the prevalence of GI symptoms ranges widely in individuals with ASD, from 9 to 91% in different study populations Macroscopic and histological observations in ASD include findings of ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, enterocolitis, gastritis, and esophagitis Associated changes in intestinal inflammatory parameters include higher densities of lymphocyte populations, aberrant cytokine profiles, and deposition of immunoglobulin (IgG) and complement C1q on the basolateral enterocyte membrane Reported functional disturbances include increased intestinal permeability, deficient enzymatic activity of disaccharidases, increased secretin-induced pancreatico-biliary secretion, and abnormal fecal Clostridia taxa Some children placed on exclusion diets or treated with the antibiotic vancomycin are reported to improve in cognitive and social function. Furthermore, a recent study found a strong correlation between GI symptoms and autism severity
Recent Data about the role of Diet Impaired Carbohydrate Digestion and Transport and Mucosal Dysbiosis in the Intestines of Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Disturbances. PLoS ONE 2011 Major findings in this study that may shed light on GI morbidity in ASD include the observations that: (1) levels of transcripts for disaccharidases and hexose transporters are reduced in AUT-GI children; (2) AUT-GI children have microbial dysbiosis in the mucoepithelium; (3) dysbiosis is associated with deficiencies in host disacharidase and hexose transporter mRNA expression. propose a model whereby deficiencies in disaccharidases and hexose transporters alter the milieu of carbohydrates in the distal small intestine (ileum) and proximal large intestine (cecum), resulting in the supply of additional growth substrates for bacteria. These changes manifest in significant and specific compositional changes in the microbiota of AUT-GI children.
Nutritional Genomics The human genome today is virtually unchanged from what it was 50,000 years ago. Yet todays food supply bears little resemblance to that on which our ancestors evolved. expectations for this field is to match foods to the individuals genetically determined ability to digest, absorb, and use the nutrients within. Avoiding foods that are not an appropriate match and focusing on those with a positive impact on health
Nutritional Genomics ex: MTHFR gene encodes enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase that activates folate, which in turn serves as a critical methyl donor as well as being essential to maintaining desirable levels of homocysteine. Individuals with the 677C>T variation in the MTHFR gene are at risk for impaired MTHFR enzymatic activity when folate intake is low. The Role of Nutritional Genomics in Developing an Optimal Diet for Humans Ruth DeBusk, PhD, Nutrition in Clinical Practice December 2010
Freidman 1999 certain ASD subjects deficent in enzyme Dipeptidyl peptidase DPP-IV responsible for breakdown of peptides
The specific Carbohydrate Diet The purpose is to deprive the microbial worlds of the intestine of the food it needs to overpopulate, the sugars from the carbohydrates. contains predominantly "predigested" carbohydrates allows maximal nourishement without overstimulation of the intestinal microbial population. As the microbial population decreases due to lack of food (while being balanced by lactobacilli), its harmful by-products also decrease, freeing the intestinal surface of injurious substances. No longer needing protection, the mucus producing cells stop producing excessive mucus, and carbohydrate digestion improved. many people with IBS and IBD are unable to split disaccharide sugars (lactose, sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose) into single molecule sugars. The Specific Carbohydrate Diet also eliminates grains, which generally cause inflammation of the intestines in people with IBD. Leo Galland, MD, has found that the Specific Carbohydrate Diet works well for people with IBD."
The specific Carbohydrate Diet many research articles to show that the toxins found in microorganisms play an important role in the suspected causes of ASD, in particular, lipopolysaccharide ( LPS) the bacterial toxins from gram negative bacteria that inhabit the guts of autistic children. LPS toxicity works synergistically with mercury and other heavy metal poisonings to expand damage. These heavy metals increase harm from LPS. In addition, LPS decreases glutathione levels making it even more difficult for the body to detoxify heavy metals.
The GAPS Diet An altered Abnormal intestinal permeability in children with autism P D'Eufemia JAN 2008 Acta Paediatrica intestinal permeability was found 43%) autistic patients, but in none of the 40 controls. We speculate that an altered intestinal permeability could represent a possible mechanism for the increased passage through the gut mucosa of peptides derived from foods with subsequent behavioural abnormalities.
Low phenol Diet Effects of Phenol-Depleted and Phenol-Rich Diets on Blood Markers of Oxidative Stress Hwa-Young Kim, MSc J AM college of nutrition June 2003Hwa-Young Kim Evidence of difference in phenol metabolism in patients with ASD>>causing oxidative stress in CNS ( Evans 2008, Waring 2000) Some individuals show reaction to phenol containing foods( spinach, berries, soya, cocoa…) and Salycalate due to Phenolsulfotransferse enzyme which seems to function abnormally in some ASD patients.Waring 1993 UK
Low Glutamate/ Aspartame diet Glutamic acid excitatory Neurotransmitter in Brain Glutamine is found in the following foods: Beans, brewer's yeast, brown rice bran, caseinate, dairy products, eggs, fish, lactalbumin, legumes, meat, nuts, seafood, seeds, soy, whey, whole grains. Hydrolysis of gluten, beet root or other proteins In 2005 Tebartz et al of Germany reported "increased prefrontal and hippocampal glutamate concentration in schizophrenia".Germany Reynolds (1991) In 1991 Reynolds of the UK reported glutamate concentrations to be high
Serotonin Diet Dietary increase in Serotonin ( e. g Banana, avocados, pineapple, papaya, walnuts) decreased self injury behavior in Developmentally delayed and Downs patients Gedye, A. Biological Psychiatry. 1991: Placebo controlled study: Buspirone was more effective in reducing aggressive/ self injury behavior when combined with serotonin diet.
The Body Ecology Diet Started by Donna Gates 2006. no published data about its efficacy Draws on different dietary approaches ( Macrobiotic diet, DAdamos Eat for your blood type diet, the Raw food diet..) Low carbohydrate, low sugar, low dairy, emphasis on raw/ minimally processed foods, fermented foods Provide high probiotic support, may be beneficial for patients with Dysbiosis.
Supplemental Diet Low urine Calcium level in autistic patients with eye poking behavioral Clinical pilots Studies showed that ASD and related neurological disorders in adults stems from lack of circulating nutritional neural lipids. Lipidomics: the function of Vital lipids in embryogenesis preventing ASD. T.Tallberg, J Lipids: 2011 Recommendation of high vital lipids diet for pre and post pregnancy and during BF to secure normal development and enhance IQ in offspring.
Supplemental Diet MIND institute A proteomic study of serum from children with autism showing differential expression of apolipoproteins and complement proteins Children with autism 4–6 years of age (n = 69) were compared to typically developing children A total of 6348 peptide components were quantified. Of these, five peptide components corresponding to four known proteins had an effect size > 0.99 with a P < 0.05 and a Mascot identification score of 30 or greater for autism compared to controls. The four proteins were: Apolipoprotein (apo) B-100, Complement Factor H Related Protein (FHR1), Complement C1q and Fibronectin 1 (FN1). In addition, apo B-100 and apo A-IV were higher in children with high compared to low functioning autism. Apos are involved in the transport of lipids, cholesterol and vitamin E. The complement system is involved in the lysis and removal of infectious organisms in blood, and may be involved in cellular apoptosis in brain.
How do I know if my child will benefit? Hyperactivity, sleep problems Bloating, constipation, diarrhea Recurrent OM, Eczema, shiner, AR Craving food, Pica, Fatigue, excessive sweating Family history of Allergies, Celiac Dx, GI diseases.
Laboratory Assessment Casomorphine, Gliadomorphine Food RAST ( IGG, IGE) Iron, Ca, Vit D, Oxalate, Zinc, Mg. Lipid profile Comprehensive Stool analysis OAT, AA profile Celiac disease panel
How to assess results Do it with guidance of physician/dietitian Do it right But be flexible Assess every 3 month Not every diet work for every patient Keep a food dietary Remember that its only part of the biomedical/ behavioral therapy