Presentation on theme: "The role of Nutrition in addressing NHPA. NHPA The NHPA influenced by nutritional factors include: CVD Obesity Colorectal cancer Osteoporosis Diabetes."— Presentation transcript:
Disease of the blood vessels The most common cause of CVD is the hardening of the arteries called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis occurs when the inner walls of the arteries become narrow due to the build up of plague.
Protective factors Protective nutrients include Omega-3 fatty acids ( found in oily fish), Omega-6 fatty acids ( found in vegetable oil)and soy protein help to lower LDL cholesterol vitamin E- helps reduce blood cholesterol folate- lowers blood amino acids homocysteine which is linked to CVD, antioxidants- helps reduce fatty deposits in the blood vessels soluble fibre lowers blood cholesterol by binding to bile acids (which are made from cholesterol) from the body. Phytoestrogens- protect CVDCVD
Nutritional Risk factors Consuming saturated and transfatty acids increases LDL (low density lipoproteins) cholesterol levels in the blood and blood pressure High sodium and low potassium diet is risk factor for hypertension Diet low in dietary fibre What lifestyle risk factors contribute to CVD
Cancers affecting either the colon or rectum are called colorectal cancer. P The colon and rectum are parts of the body’s digestive system, which remove nutrients from food and stores waste until it passes out of the body.
Colorectal cancer Most cases of colorectal cancer begin as non- cancerous polyps _ grape-like growths on the lining of the colon and rectum. These polyps can become cancerous but can be removed before this happens. 75% of deaths from colorectal cancers can be prevented by healthy diet and exercise 2003- 9000 Australian diagnosed, causing 4500 deaths
Colorectal cancer risk nutritional factors Risk nutrients include a high saturated fat intake and obesity increase risk of colorectal cancer Dietary fats should contribute 20-30% of daily energy intake Some evidence that diet high in burnt meat, red or processed meat may increase risk of colorectal cancer Recommended serve of red meat 90g a day Low dietary fibre intake
Colorectal cancer protective nutritional factors high fibre diet- it absorbs water and softens and bulks u faeces- preventing constipation and therefore preventing potential cancer causing agents from sitting in the bowel for long periods A diet high in fruit and vegetables-which is high in antioxidants, Vitamin E, Vitamin C and folate.
Is a metabolic disease in which high blood glucose levels result from defective insulin secretion, insulin action or both Type 1 - not diet relate or preventable Type 2 -diet related, body becomes insulin resistant, action may be blocked due excess fat cells around insulin receptor sites, body tries to compensate by producing more insulin which fluctuates blood glucose levels, eventually unable to compensate and resulting in consistently high blood sugars Gestational (3-8% of pregnancy) also increase chance of acquiring type 2 diabetes in later life
Type 2 diabetes mellitus Increasing in prevalence- preventable disease 69% of diabetics over age of 15 are either obese or overweight Increase weight around chest and stomach increase risk of diabetes Long term effects- heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, blindness and low limb amputation
Risk nutritional factors High GI foods increase risk of type 2 diabetes as they increase blood glucose rapidly Saturated fats increase risk of obesity a precursor to type 2 diabetes Alcohol consumption, as alcohol is high in kilojoules, alcohol inhibits liver ability to release glucose into the blood stream causing hypoglycaemia
Risk factors for obesity A high intake of diet high in fat and/or high GI foods High GI can cause higher insulin levels which can lead to insulin resistance potentially leading to type 2 diabetes mellitus Overconsumption Low fibre diet
Protective factors Consuming low GI foods- slow release energy also higher nutritional foods High fibre diet- feel full for longer Consuming low fat diet- less fat stored
What health issues are associated with obesity Osteoarthritis Sleep apnoea High cholesterol High blood pressure Type 2 diabetes mellitus Coronary heart disease Cancer Reproductive problems
Osteoporosis refers to a progressive degeneration of the structure, density and strength of the bone. A decline in bone mass can occur in older adults, causing osteoporosis. In women this can occur during menopause due to changes in the release of oestrogen.
Risk factors Low calcium and vitamin D intake High salt intake High caffeine intake High alcohol intake Menopause- oestrogen plays a role in maintaining bone density
Protective factors Adequate Vit D intake-Vitamin D is not a structural component of bone but is required for the absorption and deposition of calcium Calcium intake- Calcium and Phosphorus, responsible for the ossification (hardening) of hard tissue Weight bearing exercise