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Autism: Solving the Puzzle !!! Mostafa Waly, MPH, PhD Assistant Professor Food Science and Nutrition Department College of Agriculture & Marine Sciences.

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Presentation on theme: "Autism: Solving the Puzzle !!! Mostafa Waly, MPH, PhD Assistant Professor Food Science and Nutrition Department College of Agriculture & Marine Sciences."— Presentation transcript:

1 Autism: Solving the Puzzle !!! Mostafa Waly, MPH, PhD Assistant Professor Food Science and Nutrition Department College of Agriculture & Marine Sciences Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

2 Autism Spectrum Disorder: 1. Who? 2. What risk factors? 3. Where? 4. Clinical Picture & Social Impact? 5. Biochemical & Dietary profile? 6. Genetics?

3 Brain defects in autism

4 Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)* Autism Retts Disorder Aspergers Disorder Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified * Diagnostic criteria (DSM IV & ICD 10) * Diagnostic criteria (DSM IV & ICD 10) No diagnostic laboratory tests are available No diagnostic laboratory tests are available

5 1. Who? Male: female ratio is 3:1 Male: female ratio is 3:1 Breastfeeding is a protective factor Breastfeeding is a protective factor No clear relation to socio-economic status No clear relation to socio-economic status Onset prior to age 3 years Onset prior to age 3 years

6 Infection & Vaccination Environmental Insults Nutrition & Biochemical abnormalities Genetic Predisposition Timing Autism 2. What risk factors?

7 3. Where? Autism is an epidemic disorder !

8 Prevalence at the United States

9 Social Impact: Communication Problems Cognitive Difficulties Emotional Disorders Problems With Awareness Poor Eye Contact Behavior Problems Problems with Play Poor Understanding Of Cause and Effect Delayed Development Sleep Problems Clinical Picture: Gut Problems Absorptive Difficulties Enzyme Disorders Deficiency Syndromes Poor Detoxification Abilities Immune Reactivity Allergies Poor Blood Flow To The Brain Hippocampus Malfunction 4. Clinical picture & Social Impact

10

11 Autism Research in Oman: Folate and Vitamin B12. Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Cells Damage. Glutathione (GSH), Intracellular Antioxidant. Reduced Methylation Capacity in Autistic Children. Neurodevelopmental Toxicity and GSH Depletion. 5. Biochemical & Dietary profile?

12 SOURCES OF OXYGEN FREE RADICALS AND CELL INJURY = Oxidative Stress

13 MECHANISMS OF FREE RADICAL-MEDIATED CELLULAR INJURY

14 Oxidative Stress Antioxidant Defense Superoxide Dismutase GSH Peroxidase GSH Reductase Vitamin E Vitamin C Lipoic Acid GSTs GSH Heavy Metals Hydroxyl Radical Hydrogen Peroxide Superoxide Peroxides NO - Antioxidant Defense Counterbalances Oxidative Stress

15 Oxidative Stress Antioxidant Defense Superoxide Dismutase GSH Peroxidase GSH Reductase Vitamin E Vitamin C Lipoic Acid GSTs GSH Heavy Metals Hydroxyl Radical Hydrogen Peroxide Superoxide GSSG Cell Death Damage

16 Folate and Vitamin B12-dependent HCY- Methionine Cycle

17 Folate and Vitamin B12 Status Serum Folate(µg/l) * Serum B12(pg/ml) * Dietary Folate (µg/Day) * Diteary B12 (µg/Day) * Control Children Autistic Children (n=30) (n=30) Results are Mean ± SD, * Significantly lower than control children, P<0.05

18 Oxidative Stress Markers Homocysteine, HCY(µmol/l) # Glutathione, GSH (µmol/l) * Total Antioxidant Capacity * TAC, (mmol/l) Control Children Autistic Children (n=30) (n=30) Results are Mean ± SD, # Significantly higher than control children, P<0.05 * Significantly lower than control children, P<0.05

19 6. Genetics? twin studies %; multiple genes in twin studies %; multiple genes in chromosomes 2 q, 7 q, 16 p, 19 p. Chromosomal anomalies 15 and fragile X syndrome. Chromosomal anomalies 15 and fragile X syndrome. Recurrence risk studies- siblings of autistic people are more likely to be autistic. Recurrence risk studies- siblings of autistic people are more likely to be autistic.

20 Acknowledgment Dr. Marwan Al-Sharabati, Behavioral Medicine Dept. Dr. Mohammed Al-Shafaee, Family Medicine& Public Health Dept. Dr. Yahya Al-Farsi, Family Medicine& public health Dept. Dr. Amanat Ali, Food Science and Nutrition Dept. Dr. Majeed Al-Ani, Food Science and Nutrition Dept.

21 They Disserve Our Effort!! شكراً /


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