Presentation on theme: "Nutrition and Diet Therapy Nutrition= digestion, metabolism, circulation and elimination Nutritional Status= refers to the state of ones nutrition Wellness="— Presentation transcript:
Nutrition and Diet Therapy Nutrition= digestion, metabolism, circulation and elimination Nutritional Status= refers to the state of ones nutrition Wellness= state of good health with optimal body function (requires good nutrition Nutrition plays a large role in determining: Height Weight Strength Skeletal and muscle development Physical agility Resistance to disease Appetite Posture Complexion Mental ability Emotional and psychological health
Immediate effects of good nutrition includes: Healthy appearance Good attitude Proper sleep and bowel habits High energy level Enthusiasm Freedom from anxiety
Good Nutrition may delay or prevent the following: Hypertension Atherosclerosis Osteoporosis: prevented by good nutrition Malnutrition Obesity Anemia If your neighbor tells you her MD has placed her on a high protein diet with iron supplements based on her diet which of the above illness is her medical problem?
Essential Nutrients Composed of chemical elements found in food. Used by the body to perform body functions Nutrients in foods replace those used by the body Essential nutrients are divided into six groups.
Carbohydrates Major source of human energy Starches or sugars Easily digested, grow well in most climates, keep well without refrigeration Main sources: bread, cereals, pasta, crackers, potatoes, corn peas, fruits, sugars and syrups Cellulose = indigestible carbohydrate, provides bulk (bran, whole-grain cereal, fibrous fruits, & veggies
Fats Lipids Concentrated form of energy Help maintain body temperature by providing insulation Help cushion organs and bones Provide flavor to meals Aid in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
Fats Continued Main sources: butter, margarine, oils, creams, fatty meats, cheeses, and egg yolk Classified as saturated or poly unsaturated Cholesterol: fatty substance found in body cells and animal fats – eggs, meat, shellfish, butter cream, cheese, milk, organ meats Excess cholesterol is believed to contribute to atherosclerosis
Proteins Build and repair body tissue Provide heat and energy Help makes antibodies Make up to 22 amino acids (9are essential) Main sources complete protein: meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, Incomplete proteins: cereal, soybeans, dry beans, peas and peanuts
Vitamins Organic compounds that are essential to life Regulate body functions Repair body tissues Only a small amount required –well balanced diet provides required vitamins Excess or deficiency can cause poor health Water soluble or fat soluble Someone who eats fat free diet could become deficient in fat-soluble vitamins
Minerals Inorganic (nonliving) elements found in all body tissues Regulate body functions Build and repair body tissues They include: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, iodine, fluorine and others.
Water Found in all body tissues Essential for digestion Makes up most of blood plasma Helps body tissues absorb nutrient Helps move waste material through body Average person should drink 6-8 glasses of water a day.
Utilization of Nutrients Digestion- breaks down the foods we eat by 1. Mechanical or chemical 2.Peristalsis Absorption – process of taking in nutrients by the body 1.Most absorption occurs in the small intestine 2.Water, salts and some vitamins in large intestine
Utilization. Metabolism – use of nutrients by the body –1. Basal Metabolic rate (BMR) Measuring Food Energy –1. Calorie- the amount of heat produced during metabolism –2. Most people use an average of 3,500 calories/day –3. To lose wt. a person must take in fewer calories then are burned –4. To gain weight, a person must take in more calories than the body uses.
Write questions and use the web site to find answers…. What is a low- residue diet? What is not allowed on a low residue diet? Can you have 7- up on a clear liquid diet? If someone just had surgery the next day what diet would they likely be on? Someone with chronic esophageal reflux would be placed on what kind of diet? Someone with hyperthyroidism would be on what type of diet? A client wakes up during the night and asks for something to eat. The nurse aide should : To prevent dehydration of the client, the nurse aide should: Could a diabetic have chicken broth? What diet would be appropriate for someone with dentures? If a person was retaining fluid what diet would be ordered? A pt. With a healing wound would most likely be put on what type of diet?