Unit I-Master Outline 2H09 Analyze client nutrition and diet therapy. 2H09.01~Analyze patient/client nutritional measures. A.Fundamentals of nutrition. 1. Good nutrition. 2. Nutrition-preventable conditions. B. Utilization of nutrients. 1. Digestion 2. Absorption. 3. Metabolism. 4. Measuring food energy. C. Food habits.
Unit I-Master Outline 2H09.02Evaluate Therapeutic Diets. A. Regular. B. Liquid. C. Soft. D. Diabetic. E. Low calorie. F. High calorie. G. Low-cholesterol. H. Fat-restricted. I. Sodium-restricted. J. Protein. K. Bland. L. Low-residue.
Why should you eat a well balanced diet every day? To replace nutrients used daily by the body.
Fundamentals of Nutrition Nutrition= digestion, metabolism, circulation, and elimination Nutritional status refers to the state of ones nutrition. Wellness= State of good health with optimal body function (requires good nutrition)
Nutrition pleats a large role in determining: Height Weight Strength Skeletal & Muscle Development Physical Ability Resistance to Disease
Nutrition plays a large role in determining: Appetite Posture Complexion Mental Ability Emotional and Psychological Health
Immediate effects of good nutrition Include: Healthy Appearance Good Attitude Proper sleep and bowel habits High energy level Enthusiasm Freedom from anxiety
Good Nutrition may delay or prevent the following: Hypertension Atherosclerosis Osteoporosis Malnutrition Obesity
Essential Nutrients Composed of chemical elements found in food. Used by the body to perform body functions. Nutrients in foods replace those used by the body.
6 Groups of Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water
Carbohydrates Major source of human energy Starches or sugars Easily digested, grow well in most climates, keep well without refrigeration.
Carbohydrates Main sources: bread, cereals, pasta, crackers, potatoes, corn, peas, fruits, sugars and syrups Cellulose: It provides bulk in the digestive tract and causes regular bowel indigestible carbs, provides bulk (bran, whole-grain cereal, fibrous fruits & veggies)
Fats Lipids Concentrated form of energy Help maintain body temperature by providing insulation Help cushion organs and bones
Fats Aid in the absorption of fat- soluble vitamins Provide flavor to meals Main Sources: butter, margarine, oils, creams, fatty meats, cheeses, and egg yolks Classified as saturated or polyunsaturated.
Fats Cholesterol- Fatty substance found in body cells and animal fats- found in egg yolk, fatty meats, shellfish, butter, cream, cheese, whole milk, & organ meats. *Excess cholesterol is believed to contribute to atherosclerosis.
Proteins Build and repair body tissue Provide heat and energy Help produce antibodies Made up of 22 amino acids (9 essentials) Main sources/complete proteins: meat, fish milk, cheese, eggs/ Incomplete proteins: Cereal, soybeans. Dry beans, peas, and peanuts
Vitamins Organic compounds that are essential in life. Regulate body functions. Repair body tissues. Only a small amount required-well balanced diet provides required vitamins. Excess or deficiency can cause poor health. Water soluble or fat soluble. Someone who eats a fat free diet could become deficient in : Fat-soluble vitamins.
Minerals Inorganic (nonliving) elements found in all body tissues. Regulate body functions. Build and repair body tissues. They include: calcium, phorphorus, Sodium, potassium, iron, Flourine and others.
Water Found in all body tissues Essential for digestion. Makes up most of blood plasma Helps body tissues absorb nutrients. Helps move waste material through body. Average person should drink 6-8 glasses of water a day. Nutrient that helps the body tissues absorb other nutrients.
Utilization of Nutrients Digestion- breaks down the foods we eat 1.Mechanical or Chemical 2.Peristalis Absorption- process of taking in nutrients by the body. 1.Most absorption occurs in the small intestine. 2.Water, salts, and some vitamins in large intestine. See full-size image. scruss.com/.../wp-content/fast_food_kills.png550 x kImage See full-size image. scruss.com/.../wp-content/fast_food_kills.png550 x kImage
Utilization of Nutrients Metabolism- use of nutrients by the body. 1.Basal metabolic rate (BMR) Measuring Food Energy 2. Calorie- the amount of heat produced during metabolism. Most people use an average of 3,500 calories per day. To lose weight, a person must take in fewer calories then are burned. To gain weight, a person must take in more calories than the body uses.
Therapeutic Diets Regular Diet A balanced diet usually used for the ambulatory patient. Foods such as rich desserts, cream sauces, salad dressings, and fried foods may be decreased or omitted.
Liquid Diet –Include both clear and full liquids. –Foods included on the clear diet are mainly carbohydrates and water, including apple or grape juice, plain gelatin, ginger ale, and tea or coffee with sugar. The day after surgery most patients are on a clear liquid diet. –Foods included in the full liquid diet are strained soups, fruits and vegetable juices, ice cream, custard, pudding, and eggnog.
Soft diet –Foods must require little chewing and be easy to digest. –Foods to avoid are meat, shellfish, spicy foods, rich desserts, fried foods, nuts, and coconut.
Diabetic Diet Used for patients with diabetes mellitus. The diet contains exchange list that group foods according to type, nutrients, and caloric contents. Patients are allowed a certain number of items from each exchange list according to there individual needs. Chicken Broth
Low- Cholesterol Diet –Foods high in saturated fat, such as beef, liver, pork, lamb, egg, yolk, cream cheese, natural cheeses, and whole milk are limited.
Fat-Restricted Diet –Also called lo-fat diets. –Examples to avoid include cream, whole milk, cheeses, fats, fatty meats, rich desserts, chocolate, nuts, coconuts, nuts, fried foods, and salad dressings.
Sodium- Restricted Diet Patients that are retaining fluid should be on this diet. Patients should avoid or limit adding salt to food, smoked meats or fish, processed foods, pickles, olives, sauerkraut, and some processed cheeses.
Protein Diet –Protein rich foods include meats, fish, milks, cheeses, and eggs. An anemic patient would be on this diet. A healing surgical incision would need this diet.
Bland Diet Esophageal reflux disorder would be one reason for this diet. Consist of easily digested foods that do not irritate the digestive tract. Foods to be avoided include coarse foods, fried foods, highly seasoned foods, pastries, candies, raw fruits and vegetables, smoked and salted meats, whole grain breads, etc.
Low-Residue Diet –Eliminates or limits foods that are high in bulk & fiber. –Examples of such food include raw fruits & vegetables, whole-grain breads and cereals, nuts, seeds, beans, peas, coconut, and fried food.
High-Calorie Diet A diet that provides 1000 or more calories a day beyond what is ordinarily recommended. Hyperthyroidism