The Story Begins… Franz Anton Mesmer (1734 – 1815) Mesmer: Medical degree from University of Vienna, 1766 Maximillian Hell, Jesuit priest, spoke of using magnets to effect medical cures Mesmer began using the technique, eventually dropping the use of the magnet – his own animal magnetism was sufficient to influence (note that he always told his patients what outcome he expected) A commission appointed by the king of France investigated Mesmers techniques and attributed the benefits of animal magnetism to the imagination (Franklin, Guillotin)
The Story Continues… Marquis de Puységur Refined Mesmers technique, decreasing the drama Could induce a peaceful, sleeplike trance Artificial Somnambulism Suggestibility Induced paralysis Induced anaesthesia Emotional experience Posthypnotic Amnesia Posthypnotic Suggestion
Hypnosis James Braid (1795 – 1860) A skeptic of magnetism Argued that the phenomenon was a product of suggestibility Renamed the process neuro- hypnology, then shortened to hypnosis (hypnos: Greek – sleep) Made the phenomenon more respectable among the medical community
Hysteria Jean-Martin Charcot (1825 - 1893) Hysteria: (Hyster: Greek – uterus) paralysis and numbness, disturbances of sight and hearing Greek view of hysteria Theory is fine, but it does not prevent things from existing
Hysteria Joseph Breuer (1842 – 1925) Anna O. 21-year-old Paralysis of arms or legs Disturbances of sight and speech Nausea Memory loss Mental disorientation
Anna O. and Breuer Using hypnosis, Breuer discovered Anna had had to keep vigil by dying fathers bedside Pathogenic ideas: Each of Annas symptoms had a relationship to trauma in this situation Cathartic Method: Relief following emotional release Aristotle: Catharsis – emotional release and sense of purification by the audience while watching a drama The Talking Cure (Chimney Sweeping): talking about painful things can bring emotional relief
Anna O. The Outcome Actually named Bertha Pappenheim (1859 – 1936) Admitted to a sanatorium immediately following Breuer terminating treatment Ultimately became a leader in the European feminist movement Playwright Author of childrens stories Founder of several school and clubs for the poor, illegitimate, or wayward young women Effective spokesperson against white slavery and abortion If there is any justice in the next life women will make the laws there and men will bear the children
Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) Birth in clinical practice, rather than academic or experimental psychology Emphasis on unconscious processes
Psychoanalytic Theory Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms Anxiety Objective Anxiety: real-world threats Neurotic Anxiety: ego feels that it is going to be overwhelmed by the Id Moral Anxiety: when an internalized value (from the superego) is about to be violated Defense Mechanisms: a means for the Ego to cope with neurotic or moral anxiety
Defense Mechanisms Sublimation: substituting a nonsexual goal for a sexual one Projection: attributing blame to someone or something else (the devil made me do it) Identification: if one does not live up to an internalized value, indentifying with someone who does (e.g. logos, hairstyles, choice of music) Rationalization: manufacturing a rational reason for something when that isnt the case Reaction Formation: doing the opposite of what you really want to do (the homosexual man becomes a super Don Juan)
Back to Hysteria In 1895, Charcot and Freud together argued that hysteria is caused by traumatic experience that is not allowed adequate expression and comes out instead in a physical manifestation According to Freud, the experience is repressed because of Id/Ego/Superego conflicts The Seduction Theory: In 1896, Freud goes further and suggests that in 18 of 18 cases, his patients all had histories of a sexual attack in childhood
A Controversy Emerges Freud and Charcot were stating all of these things publicly in late 19 th Century Europe Freuds patients were the children of the wealthy elite in Vienna This is at the height of the Victorian Era The Victorian Era was characterized by strict moral standards, especially regarding sex The idea that the social elites were sexually victimizing their children was entirely unpalatable
The Outcome Essentially, Freud withdrew his argument He substituted the idea that his patients were fantasizing about sex and that the Id/Ego/Superego system repressed these fantasies, which emerged as hysteria The result: Oedipus and Electra Complexes
The Mind A Central Question in Psychology Dualism IdealismMaterialism Matter is the only reality Consciousness and perception is central
Psychoanalytic Theory and Science Psychoanalytic theory was developed via individual clinical observations and introspection by clinicians The theory is minimally tied to formal science; Freud largely departed from his training in science in developing psychoanalytic theory More recently, psychology as a discipline has developed theory on science
AS PRESENTED IN YOUR TEXT Psychology as Science
AFFILIATION EXPERIMENT DR. STANLEY SCHACHTER Video
Accumulation and Application of Scientific Knowledge Theory Basic Science Applied Science
Basic and Applied Science The Third Brake Light Theory Basic Science Applied Science The Theory John Voevodsky, a Psychologist (1974) Taxicabs in San Francisco Basic Science Experimental Group: Taxicabs with a third brake light Control Group: Taxicabs without a third brake light Results: Fewer accidents (rear end collisions) in experimental group Applied Science A third brake light is now standard Fewer accidents as a result
Basic and Applied Science Materialism and Happiness Theory Basic Science Applied Science The Theory Edward Diener, David Myers, Tim Kasser Relationship between material wealth and happiness Basic Science Diener and Myers: Once basic needs are paid for, money does little to improve happiness Kasser: People who buy into the consumer culture report lower personal well-being Individuals who say that money, image, and popularity are important are less satisfied, more depressed and more anxious Applied Science Parent-training programs to teach learning through play Would this effect your behavior or choices with your children?
Basic and Applied Science Make-Believe and Learning Theory Basic Science Applied Science The Theory Singer and Singer Relationship between make-believe in three to five year olds Basic Science Experimental Group: Trained parents, teachers, home care providers in playing make-believe games that teach about numbers, colors, shapes, vocabulary, and reading Control Group: No training Results: Children make gains in readiness skills Fun Easier to teach Effective in preparing children for school Applied Science Voluntary Simplicity movement Maximizing time affluence rather than material affluence Would knowing this effect your choices?
Basic and Applied Science The Polygraph Theory Basic Science Applied Science The Theory Relationship between physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, perspiration, muscle tension, etc) and deception Basic Science Results: No pattern of physiological response unique to deception Placebo effects (belief that the polygraph is a lie detector) account for many of effects Most lie detection is the product of expectation and making confessions Applied Science Courts have rejected the use of polygraphs as evidence of deception due to unreliability Would you allow someone to polygraph you to prove your innocence?
Evaluating Psychology as Science Shortcomings Benefits