. NEUTRALITÉ Did you say Éducaloi? COLLABORATION MISSION Éducaloi is a non-profit organization whose mission is to inform Quebecers of their rights and obligations by providing quality legal information in everyday language. www.educaloi.qc.ca
The same process for everyone! Get a CEGEP degree. Complete an undergraduate degree in law. ( Depending on the program, it can take 3 or 4 years.) Pass the bar association exams in the province in which you want to practice. It might be necessary to take bar courses. (Generally 4 to 8 months of training.) Complete a 6-month articling period. Articling students arent quite lawyers. Before they can wear a lawyers robe, they must finish the articling period!
A LOT OF DIFFERENT ROLES FOR LAWYERS 50 % are in private practice 25 % work in the public or parapublic sectors 25 % work for businesses or other organizations
Crown Attorney Working on behalf of society, this lawyer presents cases against people accused of crimes. He must prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the accused is guilty. Crown attorneys are public servants: they are employed by the Minister of Justice. The Crown attorney does not want to win his case at all costs. His priority is to discover the truth. There are about 450 Crown attorneys in Quebec. In Quebec the official name for a Crown attorney is Criminal and Penal Prosecuting Attorney. In criminal law
Defence Attorney This is the accuseds lawyer. Her role is to defend her client by presenting evidence and raising doubts in the minds of the judge or jury so that her client is found not guilty. Since the police can make an arrest at any time of day or night, defence lawyers must be available around the clock to answer their clients questions and advise them. Anyone who is arrested has the right to contact a lawyer. In criminal law
International Lawyer International lawyers often have extra training, for example, a Masters degree. Lawyers from Quebec are highly valued abroad. Do you know why? Lawyers sometimes work for international organizations,such as the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, the International Bureau for Childrens Rights and even multinational corporations. To practice in another country, a lawyer must usually repeat part of his training in the new country. Lawyers Without Borders: a non-profit group worth knowing!
Non-Traditional Lawyers Some lawyers who are very interested in social issues work for community organizations. They defend the interests of minorities, create social assistance programs, inform citizens of their rights and help them with legal proceedings, write briefs for parliamentary commissions, provide legal information in plain language, etc. Lawyers sometimes put their skills to use in business, artistic or social sectors of society. You can find lawyers in universities, management and politics, and in the entertainment and communications fields.
Training Get a CEGEP diploma in Police Technology. (Offered in a dozen CEGEPs across Quebec.) Afterwards, complete the training program at the École nationale de police du Quebec. To be admitted to this school, candidates must meet several criteria: cannot have been found guilty of a criminal offence hold a valid drivers license meet agility and strength standards be in good physical condition have good vision
Eligibility for the RCMP People who want to work as police officers with the RCMP must: 1)be Canadian citizens 2)be at least 19 years old 3)have a high school diploma 4)have a valid drivers license 5)be of good character 6)candidates selected by the RCMP must take a 24- week training program in Regina, Saskatchewan The Royal Canadian Mounted Police used to be called the North- West Mounted Police.
The work of police officers falls into 4 general areas: 1- crime prevention 2- emergency intervention 3- investigation 4- coordination of police servicesInvestigator This is the police officer in charge of a criminal investigation. The officer gathers evidence to try to find the person or people who committed a crime. During a trial, she works with the attorney presenting the case against the accused, since she knows the file so well.
Crime Prevention The main mission of the police is to maintain order, ensure public safety and make sure laws are respected. : To do this, they: organize information sessions participate in community programs develop partnerships with community organizations and institutions in their area In the movies or on television, we rarely see examples of prevention in police work: a chase scene is more likely to make it onto TV than an officer patrolling a park. However, keeping the peace is still an important part of the work of police officers.
Judge This is the person who has authority over the courtroom. The judge is the chief organizer of the trial process. She must enforce the rules of evidence and explain legal concepts to the jury. On top of all the judges working in municipal courts, Quebec has over 460 judges who sit on the Court of Appeal, the Superior Court and the Court of Quebec.
A School for Judges? To become a judge, a person must first be a lawyer for at least 10 years. Judges are named by the federal and provincial governments, which each have a different process for naming judges. The selection committee ensures that candidates: have the professional skills required for the job have an unblemished record as a lawyer respect high standards of conduct since, in the eyes of the public, judges are a reflection of the justice system
Notary Prevention is the best remedy. This could be the motto of notaries. Like lawyers, notaries act as legal advisors in many different areas of law. However, unlike lawyers, notaries dont play a role in legal disputes. Their special skills come in handy at many key moments in a persons life. Take a look at a couple of examples… There are about 3,400 notaries in Quebec. Half of them are women.
Protection of Family Property Getting married, buying a property or starting a family raises a lot of legal issues. A notary has to foresee all lot of different scenarios when he prepares the legal documents that go along with these big life events. Notaries prepare: marriage contracts cohabitation agreements wills mandates in case of incapacity (instructions on who should take care of a persons affairs if he becomes unable to look after himself due to illness or other circumstances) an inventory of a persons property and investments Documents prepared by a notary are official in the eyes of the law. This means it is very difficult to contest a notarized document in court. This is why many contracts, like a deed of sale for a house, are often notarized.
Buying or selling real estate? Buying a house is a big step, so buyers usually consult a notary to make the transfer of property official. Banks and credit unions that lend money to home buyers usually require that the house be used as a guarantee that the loan will be paid. This guarantee is called a hypothec. The document containing the hypothec must be created by a notary. This is why notaries almost always play a role in the buying or selling of buildings or land. The notarial profession exists in 71 other countries in the world. Women got the right to become notaires in Quebec in 1956.
Other Services Notaries also act for clients in these areas: adoption marriage immigration end of a civil union (civil union is a kind of marriage) business matters Notaries can also act as mediators to ensure that two people reach an agreement. Some notaries are also involved in financial and tax planning. These notaries know about Registered Education Savings Plans (RESPs) and Registered Retirement Savings Plans (RRSPs), etc.
Court Clerk Court clerks are like stage directors for the court process: they make sure everything happens smoothly and on time. The tasks of a court clerk are divided into 3 time periods: before, during and after a trial.
Before the Trial At this stage, the court clerk acts as an assistant for the judge. The court clerk might also have the following responsibilities: deciding the date and time of a trial, after consulting with lawyers for both sides planning any meetings or hearings that need to take place before a trial making sure the court files are complete and meet all legal requirements (A court file is made up of documents. Often there are enough documens to fill several boxes…and the clerk has to make sure they are in order!)
The Day of theTrial From her desk in front of the judge, the court clerk: states the name of the case and the parties asks the lawyers to identify themselves takes minutes (an official summary of the various stages of a trial) take notes for the judge of the most important things that happen in court calls witnesses and ask them to swear or solemnly promise to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth when lawyers want to present documents or objects to the judge, they first give them to the court clerk, who makes a note of what they are before handing them to the judge
How do you become a court clerk? There is no specific training to become a court clerk. However, a diploma in paralegal technology is often required, whether the job is with the Department of Justice or a municipal court in Quebec. Paralegals who want to become court clerks must take training programs offered by their employers to acquire the additional skills and knowledge required for the job.
Bailiff Who is knocking on the door? It might be a bailiff delivering a court document. But the work of bailiffs is varied: they dont just deliver court proceedings and seize property! Bailiffs clients (who are often lawyers) ask them to do a variety of tasks: deliver court documents carry out court decisions write official reports of certain events collect money owed
Training In Quebec, there are legal requirements about who can be a bailiff. An organization called the Chambre des huissiers de justice du Québec oversees the profession. Here are the requirements: a CEGEP diploma in paralegal technology a 4-week training program of the Chambre a 6-month internship passing a professional exam A long time ago in France, bailiffs use to wear uniforms and had to shave the tops of their heads.
Court Usher This person makes sure the courtroom is ready for the trial. When the judge arrives, he asks the audience to be quiet and says the famous phrase: The court is now in session.Training There is no particular program to become a court usher. However, the Department of Justice and municipal courts in Quebec require at least a high school diploma. To learn the skills for this job, candidates complete a training program offered by their employer.
There are lots of other exciting legal careers… Paralegal Legal Translator Stenographer Corrections Officer Probation Officer …