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Inter American University of Puerto Rico Guayama Campus Cooperative Title V Project Reading Strategies III Critical Thinking Strategies Prof. Daisy Irizarry.

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Presentation on theme: "Inter American University of Puerto Rico Guayama Campus Cooperative Title V Project Reading Strategies III Critical Thinking Strategies Prof. Daisy Irizarry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inter American University of Puerto Rico Guayama Campus Cooperative Title V Project Reading Strategies III Critical Thinking Strategies Prof. Daisy Irizarry Vázquez ©April 2007

2 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 2 Buttons You will use some buttons to navigate through this module. The buttons and their meanings follow: use it to go back to the first slide use it to move to the next slide use it to return to the previous slide

3 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 3 Purpose This module plans to familiarize you with critical thinking skills to facilitate your study and comprehension of simple reading selections studied in the GEEN 1102, English as a Second Language II or any basic reading course.

4 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 4 Introduction Your interest and motivation in reading English as a Second Language is often encouraged when you understand the reading assignments. Proficiency in reading is achieved with the use of reading strategies that will improve your reading skills. Critical thinking strategies are a very helpful set of tools that will help you approach your reading from a deeper perspective. Lets begin by defining what is critical thinking.

5 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 5 What is Critical Thinking? Critical Thinking is that mode of thinking - about any subject, content, or problem - in which the thinkers improve the quality of their thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. Lets find out together how is critical thinking related to reading?

6 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 6 How is Critical Thinking Related to Reading? Critical thinking and reading involve a purposeful examination of what you have read. All methods to evaluate information usually begin with the type of reading and purpose for reading. For example, am I reading a piece that asks me to analyze an issue or to solve a problem? Is the reading itself one that is organized as an issue or as a problem-solution piece? What will happen when you become a critical thinker?

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8 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 8 General Objective After studying this module, you will apply critical thinking strategies when reading to demonstrate further improvement of your reading comprehension process.

9 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 9 Specific Objective After thorough study of this module, the student will make accurate use the following critical thinking strategies: -analyzing -reflecting -distinguishing between fact and opinion -classifying -applying what you know -evaluating

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11 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 11 Part I. Read the selection. Neighborhood Feuds * Part I 1 Across the United States, disputes between neighbors are becoming common. The most common conflicts fall into three categories: excessive noise; damage caused by children and pets; and trees (for instance, a neighbor's maple tree blocking your view). 2 As trivial as these irritations may seem, when they occur repeatedly they can start all-out war. For instance, in one California town, a man was so enraged by persistent barking from his neighbor's dog that he taped the pet's mouth shut. The dog died, and the man now faces criminal charges for animal cruelty. In a Connecticut neighbor­hood, when a family refused to trim their messy weeping-willow tree, someone drilled holes in the tree's trunk and poisoned it.

12 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 12 3When a neighbor problem arises, people usually try to avoid the neighbor. They are afraid they will insult or offend the neighbor if they talk about the problem. That is probably not the best tactic; avoiding a problem neighbor makes people feel helpless, like there is no solution. 4Lawsuits are also usually a poor solution. A lawyer who specializes in neighbor problems says, "Courts hate neighbor lawsuits. Lawsuits often just mask the real problems between neighbors. So, even after the lawsuit is over, the neighbors find something else to fight about."

13 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 13 What You Can Do 5 So, if avoiding a problem neighbor isn't an effective solution, and neither is filing a lawsuit, how do you handle a dispute with a neighbor? Experts say to handle it yourself. 6 To begin with, know your rights. When a neighbor does something extremely unreasonable, he or she has probably broken a "nuisance law." These laws vary from community to community, but they are often very detailed. For instance in Farmington, New Mexico, music played on private property is not allowed to exceed fifty decibels at night. Check the local laws at your town clerk's office or the public library. If you have legal grounds to complain, show your neighbor a copy of the law.

14 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 14 Part II. Select the correct answer. 1. An inappropriate question to ask yourself after reading the title of the passage would be a. What are the causes of the feuds? b. What are feuds? c. Where are the neighbors? 2. The author illustrates his point with a. opinions. b. facts. c. examples.

15 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 15 3. According to the reading, the m ost common conflicts among neighbors fall into three categories: a. excessive noise; damage caused by children and pets; and trees. b. excessive noise; damage caused by trees; and the amount of children in the neighborhood. c. excessive damage cause by neighbors; noisy adolescents; and tropical trees. 4. Putting tape to a dogs mouth is a a. criminal charge. b. cruel act. c. domestic violence event.

16 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 16 5. The statement: Neighbors should share and solve their problems in private is an example of a (an) a. fact. b. rule. c. opinion. 6. Avoiding a problem neighbor makes people feel a. happy b. helpful c. helpless

17 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 17 7. A lawsuit is a. a legal action brought between two private parties in a court of law. b. a suit that people wear to go to court. c. a party celebrated privately. 8. A fact stated in the selection is that a. having less children make your neighbors happy. b. avoiding a problem neighbor or presenting a lawsuit do not end a neighborhood problem. c. a weeping-willow tree is the object of most neighborhood controversies.

18 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 18 9. The words feud, dispute, and conflict are a. antonyms b. adjectives c. synonyms 10. It is known that neighbors in Puerto Rico also have feuds. The reasons are _________ the ones in the United States. a. comparable to b. unlike c. different from

19 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 19 Pre-Test Answer Key 1. C6. C 2. B7. A 3. A8. B 4. B9. C 5. C10. A

20 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 20 Pre-Test Assessment 10 or 9ExcellentGo to the Post Test. 8 or 7Very GoodReview the incorrect answers and go to the Post Test. 6You need practice Review the incorrect answers; study the strategies presented in this module; do the assessment exercises and then go to the Post Test. 5 or less You have to work the whole module Study the module; review the strategies carefully and do the assessment exercises. Then, you can go to the Post Test.

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22 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 22 # 1 Analyzing You analyze in order to find out why something is the way it is. When you analyze something, you take it apart. You study each part and look for connections among the parts. When you analyze, you probably want to know the causes, effects, reasons, purposes, or consequences.

23 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 23 Analyzing Example What was the cause of a particular automobile accident? To analyze the cause, you might ask these questions: -Was more than one car involved in the accident? - Was the road wet? -What time of day did the accident happen? -Was the driver alone? Was the driver tired? Was the driver drinking or on medication? -What was the condition of the car before the accident?

24 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 24 Analyzing In your college courses, your professors will expect you to analyze what you read. In order to analyze a text (the article, chapter, etc. that you are reading), here are some questions you might ask yourself: What/who is this text about? What is the context? What are the circumstances? What is the central issue or problem? What questions does the writer ask? What questions does the writer answer? What is the writer's central point or points? So what? What does it all mean? How can you connect this text to other texts that you have read? What applications can you make to the world around you?

25 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 25 # 2 Reflecting To reflect is to think seriously, carefully, and relatively calmly. As you read, you will reflect on challenges to your beliefs and values: Examining your personal responses.

26 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 26 Reflecting The reading that you do for the English as a Second Language class might challenge your attitudes, your unconsciously held beliefs, or your positions on current issues. As you read a text for the first time, mark an X in the margin at each point where you feel a personal challenge to your attitudes, beliefs, or status.

27 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 27 Reflecting Make a brief note in the margin about what you feel or about what in the text created the challenge. Now look again at the places you marked in the text where you felt personally challenged. What patterns do you see?

28 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 28 Reflecting As you read a text for the first time, mark an X in the margin at each point where you feel a personal challenge to your attitudes, beliefs, or status. Make a brief note in the margin about what you feel or about what in the text created the challenge.

29 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 29 # 3 Distinguishing between Fact and Opinion Being able to distinguish between a statement of fact or an opinion is an important skill to critical thinking. It involves knowing what can be proven directly and what is a legitimate implication derived from the facts.

30 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 30 Distinguishing between Fact and Opinion A fact reports information that can be directly observed or can be verified or checked for accuracy. Example: The American Bar Association reports that, on average, over 250,000 neighbors a year try mediation to resolve disputes.

31 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 31 Distinguishing between Fact and Opinion An opinion expresses an evaluation based on a personal judgment or belief which may or may not be verifiable. Example: Disputes among neighbors are always easy to solve.

32 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 32 FACT AND OPINION: Assessment Directions: Write fact or opinion after each of the following statements. 1. George Washington was the first President of the United States. __________ 2. My favorite music group is Maná. __________ 3. Thanksgiving is celebrated in November in America. __________ 4. The upside-down cake Mrs. García made was delicious. __________ 5. I really enjoyed the football game last weekend. __________ 6. The Presidential Election is held in November. __________

33 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 33 FACT AND OPINION: Assessment Answer Key 1. Fact 2. Opinion 3. Fact 4. Opinion 5. Opinion 6. Fact

34 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 34 # 4 Classifying Classifying means arranging and organizing into groups, classes, or categories. Example: At the supermarket, everything is arranged according to categories. This makes it possible for you to find what you want quickly. Apples Oranges together as FRUIT Peaches

35 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 35 Classifying Writers often arrange their ideas in groups. In other words, they classify or categorize their thoughts and information. Example: You want to write about a friend. You might organize your ideas as follows: brown eyes beautiful smile together as PHYSICAL TRAITS long dark hair

36 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 36 Classifying Readers can follow a writer's thinking if the ideas and information are classified logically. easy to please likes people together as PERSONALITY TRAITS curious intelligent

37 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 37 # 5 APPLYING WHAT YOU KNOW Sometimes the best way to apply what you know is to "picture" the possibilities. You can build an image of results or consequences from what you know.

38 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 38 APPLYING WHAT YOU KNOW Example: A young man you know is in love with a young woman, but she doesnt love him. (Sigh, sigh.) What future possibilities can you picture? 1. She changes her mind. 2. She doesn't change her mind, and he is unhappy for the rest of his life. 3. She doesn't change her mind, but he goes on with his life. Maybe he even finds someone new.

39 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 39 APPLYING WHAT YOU KNOW Well, you don't really know for sure; you have no crystal ball. Yet, you can imagine two or three possibilities from your own experience and/or other people's experience. How do you know the future possibilities?

40 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 40 APPLYING WHAT YOU KNOW You also need to apply what you learn from your course work to the world around you. Maybe you know X and you apply what you know about X to Y. Maybe you never thought about a connection before.

41 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 41 APPLYING WHAT YOU KNOW Example: You read this: Medical studies show that sick people get well faster if they feel cared for and loved. You make the connection to your sick uncle. How can you apply what you've learned? Maybe you arrange to visit him more often and tele­phone him every day. As you read and write, you need to make these connections and apply what you know.

42 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 42 # 6 Evaluating To answer questions such as these, you need to evaluate or make a judgment: What person in your life has influenced you the most? Which of your friends is your best friend? What is the worst movie you have ever seen? What did you like or dislike about this book? What is the most important quality in a mate?

43 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 43 Evaluating Your evaluation is your opinion. There are no right or wrong answers to such questions. However, your reader expects you to explain your evaluation when you write.

44 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 44 Evaluating Example: You judge honesty to be the most important quality in a mate. Your reasoning might begin like this: You need to build a relationship on trust. For you to trust your mate, she/he has to be honest. You must depend on your mate to tell the truth. If your mate is honest, then you can trust her/him.

45 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 45 Evaluating It is important for you to express your opinions and then to explain them, to support them with reasons.

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47 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 47 1 Unfortunately, being on the right side of the law isn't always enough. To prevent the problem from turning into a battle, keep in mind that different types of neighbor problems call for different strategies: 2 Noise. Experts in neighborhood mediation advise people to remember that noise is subjective. The neighbor might not even realize he or she is creating a problem. You might think that the rock 'n roll band next door is making noise, but they think they are making important music. When you approach a neighbor about a noise problem, don't criticize the neighbor's behavior; that might only make the neighbor angry. Instead, tell your neighbor how the sound is affecting you. For example, instead of say­ing, "Your guitars are too loud," say, "Your guitars are keeping me and my family awake at night." Neighborhood Feuds * Part II Part I. Read the selection.

48 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 48 3 Kids and pets. Children and domestic animals have the greatest potential to tear a neighborhood apart. Take the case of Michael Rubin, who was involved in one of the most bitter neighbor lawsuits in the United States. 4 One day Rubin came home and decided to take a nap. Outside his bedroom window, the boy next door was playing basketball. Rubin recalls, "I asked the boy to stop playing bas­ ketball. He stopped, but then came out with his father and started playing again." Rubin grabbed a garden hose and soaked the boy and his father. 5 The neighbors sued Rubin. They claimed that his spraying them with water caused such emotional distress, they had to go into therapy, and they wanted him to pay for it. Rubin countersued his neighbors.

49 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 49 6 What can neighbors do to avoid this legal and emotional war? In a case involving a neighbor's child, it pays to be especially careful. People can be hypersensitive and defensive about their kids. Instead of react­ing in the heat of the moment, take some time to think about how you want to solve the problem. Then calmly approach your neighbors. 7 Trees. Trees are one of the trickiest neigh­bor problems to resolve. That's because they serve so many vital purposes to a homeowner. They may be used for privacy, shade, fences, property line markers or even food. So, in the case of a problem tree, be prepared to compromise.

50 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 50 8 That's something Amy King wishes she had done. Every autumn, Amy collected the apples that dropped from her neighbor's trees into her yard, to make cider. There was no fence between the yards, so Amy col­lected only the apples that she was sure had fallen on her side of the property line. Last year, her neighbor gave her a bill. "The trees belong to me," he said. "If you want to use my apples, you have to pay for them." 9 Furious, Amy trimmed the apple-tree branches that hung over her property line. The neighbor fought back: He hired a tree consultant who claimed the trees were traumatized, and he wanted payment for the damage. * Heyer, S. (2003). Beyond True Stories: A High Intermediate Reader. New York: Longman.

51 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 51 Part II. Select the correct answer. 1. According to reading, it is advisable not to criticize neighbors about the noise they produce because noise a. is subjective. b. does not last forever. c. produces music. 2. The most troublesome creatures in a neighbor are a. children and pets b. rock bands. c. dogs and cats.

52 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 52 3. One example of a terrible neighbor lawsuit in the United States is Michael Rubin vs. a. a boy. b. baseball. c. a father and his son 4. A fact in this lawsuit is that a. the boy didnt like basketball. b. Rubin countersued his neighbors. b. the father knew karate.

53 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 53 5. An advice that the author gives to the readers is a. do not approach your neighbors when you are angry. b. to love their neighbors c. to keep situations away from court. 6. The many purposes a tree serves makes any situation very __________ to solve. a. easy b. difficult c. expensive

54 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 54 7. It is known in Puerto Rico that if a neighbors fruit tree has branches in your yard, you can _____ the fruit. a. sell b. throw away c. take 8. Definitely, the best thing to share with any neighbor is a. a good communication. b. fruits from our yards. c. our pets.

55 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 55 9. The American Bar Association is a a. chocolate and other candy factory. b. professional organization for lawyers. c. waiters school. 10. At the end of the selection, the author a. gives additional examples. b. introduces new facts. c. summarizes the major points.

56 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 56 Post-Test Answer Key 1. C6. B 2. A7. C 3. C8. A 4. B9. B 5. A 10. C

57 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 57 Post-Test Score-Analysis 10 or 9ExcellentYou master the reading strategies in this module. 8 or 7Very Good Review the reading strategies and work the Post Test again. 6You need practice Study the strategies presented in this module; do the assessment exercises and work the Post Test again. 5 or lessYou need to study the module again Study the complete module again. If you still have questions about the content of the module talk to your professor or to the English Lab technicians.

58 Reading Strategies III Module Title V Cooperative Project 58 FEEDBACK! I know that you are ready to lead your reading experience in English as a Second Language. Yet, if you still have doubts about the critical thinking strategies, I recommend you review the module again. Do not forget that you can count on your professor and the Lab technician to assist you. Congratulations! You have finished the module!


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