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Chapter 21: Economics, Policy and the Future

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1 Chapter 21: Economics, Policy and the Future
Ms. Hubbuch

2 What is sustainability?
Sustainability is the condition in which human society can go on indefinitely and future generations can have a standard of living as high as our own.

3 What is globalization? Globalization occurs when linked environmental and economic conditions cross political borders around the world. It requires organization by governments and businesses to identify common goals and address problems.

4 International organizations, Meetings and Agreements
In 1948, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) was established. It is a worldwide partnership of States, government agencies, private and nonprofit organizations and scientists and experts from 140 countries. It encourages and assists in conservation as well as equitable and sustainable use of natural resources.

5 International Organizations, Meetings and Agreements
The UN Conference on Human Environment met in Stockholm in 1972. This was the first international meeting to consider global environment and development needs. It led to the formation of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP).

6 International Organizations, Meetings and Agreements
In 1992 in Rio De Janeiro the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED or Earth Summit) met. This produced Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration (Earth Declaration) which outlines key policies for sustainable development. It also established the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (UNCSD).

7 International Organizations, Meetings and Agreements
In 2002 in Johannesburg, The World Summit on Sustainable Development. This meeting reviewed the 10 year progress of Agenda 21 and to consider several major treaties.

8 International Organizations, Meetings and Agreements
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was created in 1988. It is a group of scientists from around the world that studies the scientific, social and economic aspects of human-induced climate change.

9 International Organizations, Meetings and Agreements
The Framework Convention on Climate Change was created in 1992 in Rio De Janeiro. The agreement established international recognition of the problem of climate change. It also proposed strategies to limit greenhouse gases.

10 International Organizations, Meetings and Agreements
The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer occurred in 1987. This agreement by many countries to eliminate substances such as CFC’s, that damage the atmospheres protective ozone layer.

11 International Organizations, Meetings, and Agreements
The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change occurred in 1997. It was an agreement to reduce worldwide emissions of greenhouse gases. It requires larger reductions by developing countries. It allows for trading of permitted levels of emissions and promotes pollution-free development.

12 Economics Economics is the study of the choices people make as they use and distribute limited resources. Markets are seen as a self contained economic system. People decide the value of something by comparing costs and benefits from their own perspective. A successful system has economic growth, an increase in the flow of money and products within a market. Economic systems may not account for external factors that do not have a direct economic value such as air or wildlife. Economists see environmental problems as market failures if the price of something does not reflect it’s true cost.

13 Economics

14 The nature conservancy
The Nature Conservancy is a nonprofit that uses simple economic strategies to preserve ecosystems. They work to collect donations of money and land. They either use the land as a preserve, or sell it. Ultimately the goal is to string together large preserves with land and funds made available.

15 History of US Environmental Policy
During the 1800’s people in the US made use of the country’s vast resources by turning prairies into cropland, cutting down ancient forests and hunting species to extinction. By the 1900’s, citizens began to understand the consequences of these actions and attitudes started to change.

16 History of US Environmental Policy
Poor farming techniques in the arid Midwest led to the great “Dust Bowl” of the 1930’s. Prevailing winds carried loose soil into the atmosphere that created black clouds. This occurred over 100 million acres and displaced over 2.5 million people.

17 History of US Environmental Policy
In 1969, the Cuyahoga River caught fire and captured the attention of all Americans. The river was long known for being heavily polluted but was seen as a necessity for the booming industries in Ohio. With dramatic visual images, the fire helped to push through a wave of environmental legislation.

18 History of US Environmental Policy

19 United States Federal Agencies
The Environmental Protection Agency was created by Nixon in 1970. It enforces the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Solid Waste Disposal Act and many more.

20 United States Federal Agencies
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service enforces the Endangered Species Act and most legislation that deals with animals.

21 United States Federal Agencies
The National Park Service manages the national parks.

22 United States Federal Agencies
The Department of Agriculture enforces the Soil and Water Conservation Act as well as the National Forests Management Act.

23 United states Federal Agencies
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration monitors international atmosphere, climate and oceans.

24 United States Federal Agencies
The National Marine Fisheries Service enforces the Marine Mammal Protection Act.

25 United States Federal agencies
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates nuclear power stations and nuclear wastes.

26 Environmental Impact statements
Most government agencies are required to file an EIS for any proposed project of policy that would have a significant on the environment. Proposals for the construction of dams, highways, airports and other projects that the federal government controls or funds must be evaluated with an EIS.

27 Environmental Impact Statements

28 People Making a Difference
( ) Henry David Thoreau was a conservationist and writer who is best known for his essays about his stay in a cabin at Walden Pond in Massachusetts.

29 People Making a Difference
( ) John Muir was a Scottish-born naturalist and writer who founded the Sierra Clun, explored the American West and was a famous advocate for preserving western lands as wilderness. “When one tugs at a single thing in nature, he finds it attached to the rest of the world.”

30 People Making A Difference
( ) Aldo Leopold was an American author, scientists, ecologist, forester and environmentalist. He is best known for his nook the Sand County Almanac which sold over 2 million copies. Leopold was influential in the development of environmental ethics and the movement for wildlife conservation.

31 People Making A Difference
( ) Teddy Roosevelt was the first American president to strongly support conservation. He founded the Forest Service, expanded national forests by 400 percent, and created the first National Monuments.

32 People Making a difference
( ) Rachel Carson was a biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service who raised awareness of toxic pesticides with her 1962 book, Silent Spring.

33 People making a difference
( ) Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees in Tanzania’s Gombe Stream National Park. Her books raised awareness of the plight of several endangered species and prompted new thinking about primate behavior.

34 People Making A difference
( ) Jacques Cousteau was a world famous French oceanographer who produced many popular books, films, and TV programs that documents over four decades of undersea exploration.

35 People making a difference
( ) Garrett Hardin was a distinguished professor of human ecology who is best known for the 1968 essay “The Tragedy of the Commons.”

36 How Will you change the world?
Vote in elections! Think globally, act locally. Use the purchasing power of your money. Get educated and stand up for yourself!

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