Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Assessment By: Joseph Low Mr. Riehles Class 5 th Period."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 16 Assessment By: Joseph Low Mr. Riehles Class 5 th Period
Strengths and Weaknesses of the North Strengths The North manufactured 97 percent of the country's firearms, 96 percent of its railroad locomotives, 94 percent of its cloth, 93 percent of its pig iron, and over 90 percent of its boots and shoes. The North had twice the density of railroads per square mile. Nearly 21 million people lived in the 23 Northern states Weaknesses Had weaker military leaders compared to the South North had to attack the South in their home field, thus creating a disadvantage for the North The North was more urbanized than the south so Southern soldiers were able to get used to guns and ride horses
Strengths and Weaknesses of the South Strengths Had Better Generals like Stonewall Jackson, Robert E. Lee, Pete Longstreet, George Pickett. Home Field Advantage Less urbanized, has long unused places to ride horses and shoot muskets. Weaknesses Did not have a way to receive foreign war goods Less Populated Only resource mass produced was cotton
Advantages and Disadvantages
Who were the Confederate Soldiers? The average Confederate soldier in the civil war was: The average Confederate soldier was a young man in his early 20s They were unshaven, unkempt, and gaunt, But tough from months of difficult living Most soldiers were: Between the ages of 18 and 39 with an average age of 26
Who were the Union Soldiers? The average Union soldier in the civil war was: Was a single native born white protestant man Aged between 18 and 29 years old Stood about 58 and weighed about 143 pounds Most soldiers were: Between the ages of 18 and 39 with an average age of 26
First Battle of Bull Run Why the South prevailed: Fighting spirit Thomas Stonewall Jacksons stand and refusal to surrender that turned the tide of the battle which thus crumbled the norths attack Why the North was defeated: The weakest part of the confederates wall was on the left, the union attacked with force causing the wall to crumble, then the south reinforced their defenses and caused severe bloodshed against the union army.
First Battle of Bull Run
Victories in the east by the South in st Battle of Bull Run, VA July 21, nd Battle of Bull Run, VA August 27-30, 1862
Victories in the east by the south in 1862 Battle of Fredericksburg, VA December 11–15, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation is an executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, during the American Civil War under his war powers. It proclaimed the freedom of 3.1 million of the nation's 4 million slaves, and immediately freed 50,000 of them, with the rest freed as Union armies advanced.
Emancipation Proclamation On September 22, 1862, Lincoln announced that he would issue a formal emancipation of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863 The Proclamation made abolition a central goal of the war (in addition to reunion), angered many Northern Democrats, energized anti-slavery forces, and weakened forces in Europe that wanted to intervene to help the Confederacy. Total abolition of slavery was finalized by the Thirteenth Amendment of 1865
Responsibilities of Women Nurses for wounded soldiers during battles Spys for the Union and Confederate Armies during Wartime Being part of the Womens Central Relief Association A Vivandiere was another job a woman could legally do Teaching Disguising themselves as men to go fight
Women s Responsibilities Important Women Clara Barton- Founder of the American Red Cross Rose O'Neal Greenhow- Confederate spy Lucretia Mott- Social Reformer Harriet Beecher Stowe- Guided slaves to freedom
Civil War Hospitals Hospitals For every man killed in battle, two died of illness or disease. Bad drinking water and food, poor clothing and mosquitoes were a major cause of illness Most doctors didn't understand the need to wash their hands to prevent infections. Often the injured died from infections, rather than from the wound itself. When patients had gotten infections doctors bled them
Civil War Prisons Prisons During the summer months, more than 100 prisoners died every day Andersonville held more captured Union soldiers than any other Confederate camp, a total of more than 45,000, nearly 30 percent of whom died in captivity During the Civil War approximately 460,000 Confederate soldiers were taken prisoner by the North. The Confederacy claimed more than 210,000 Overcrowding, disease, starvation, and unimaginable cruelty were commonplace in Civil War Prisons. More than 25,000 Confederate soldiers died in prison during the Civil War. More than 30,000 Federal prisoners of war died in prison.
Political and Economic effects in the North The North had five times the number of factories as the South, and over ten times the number of factory workers. In addition, 90% of the nation's skilled workers were in the North. In the North, however, high tariffs were viewed favorably because such tariffs would make imported goods more expensive. That way, goods produced in the North would seem relatively cheap, and Americans would want to buy American goods instead of European items
Political and Economic effects in the South Of the four million slaves working in the South in 1860, about one million worked in homes or in industry, construction, mining, lumbering or transportation. The remaining three million worked in agriculture, two million of whom worked in cotton. Slaves were concentrated on the large plantations of about 10,000 big planters, on which or more slaves worked. About 3,000 of these planters owned more than 100 slaves, and 14 of them owned over 1,000 slaves
Southern Victories during the Winter of 1862 Battle of Prairie Grove, Arkansas December 7, 1862 Battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia December 13, 1862 Battle of Chickasaw Bluffs, Mississippi December 29, 1862
Southern Victories in the spring of 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville April 27 th, 1863 The Vicksburg Campaign May 22 nd, 1863
Roles of African American Soldiers In the Union Army Soldiers- By the end of the Civil War, over 500,000 slaves had escaped to the North, many of whom joined the Union Army, greatly increasing its man power. The Emancipation Proclamation also led to the 13th Amendment, enacted on December 18, 1865, which legally freed all slaves still in bondage.
Roles of African Americans Soldiers in the Union Army Cooks Spies Sailors Teachers
Battle of Gettysburg Gettysburg was a turning point because after that battle, General Lee never had enough men to attack the North directly again. It was General Lee's only hope to win a big victory in Northern territory, but he lost it, and therefore the morale went down. Lee had to go from offensive to defensive.
Battle of Gettysburg After Gettysburg, the South never won another major battle, except for Chicamauga, which came too late. Also, the South never again was able to mount a major invasion of the North and was limited only to raids. Perhaps most importantly, the Southern defeat at Gettysburg, and the loss of Vicksburg the next day, doomed all Southern efforts to secure recognition from European governments. This insured eventual defeat
Union Victories to insure Lincoln s re-election One reason was that the Democratic Party split, and there were two candidates, Stephen Douglas, and John Bell. Lincoln won with only forty percent of the vote. On November 8, Lincoln won by over 400,000 popular votes and easily clinched an electoral majority. Several states allowed their citizens serving as soldiers in the field to cast ballots, a first in United States history. Soldiers in the Army gave Lincoln more than 70% of their vote.
Union victories to insure Lincoln s Re-Election Lincoln's reelection in 1864 became far more likely when Union victories at Mobile Bay and the Shenandoah Valley rescued lincoln from what looked like a smashing defeat and produced a Presidential victory in What aided Lincoln's reelection in 1864 was a few long-awaited military successes - Sheridan occupying the Shenandoah, Sherman taking Atlanta, and Farragut liberating the port of Mobile.
Steps to South s Surrender Gen. Robert E. Lee commanded the Army of Northern Virginia, while Maj. Gen. John Brown Gordon commanded its Second Corps. Early in the morning of April 9, Gordon attacked, aiming to break through Federal lines at the Battle of Appomattox Court House, but failed, and the Confederate army was then surrounded. At 8:30 A.M. that morning, Lee requested a meeting with Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to discuss surrendering the Army of Northern Virginia. Shortly after twelve o'clock, Grant's reply reached Lee, and in it Grant said he would accept the surrender of the Confederate army under certain conditions
Steps to South s Surrender On May 10, Union cavalrymen, under Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson's command, captured Confederate President Jefferson Davis after he fled Richmond, Virginia, following its evacuation in the early part of April On May 5, 1865, in Washington, Georgia, Davis had held the last meeting of his Cabinet. At that time, the Confederate Government was declared officially dissolved.