4IntroductionRenewable Energy – “any sustainable energy source that comes from natural environment.”Some Aspects of Renewable EnergyIt exists perpetually and in abundant in the environmentReady to be harnessed, inexhaustibleIt is a clean alternative to fossil fuels“energy that is derived from natural process that are replenished constantly” -- defined by the RENEWABLE ENERGY WORKING PARTY of the INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
5IntroductionContribution of Renewable Energy in World Electricity Production
6Introduction Major Renewable Energy Sources Hydro Energy Wind Energy Solar EnergyBiomass EnergyTidal EnergyGeothermal EnergyWave EnergyBio-fuelBagasse
7Present Installed Capacity of Renewable Energy Sources in India Wind10200 MWSmall Hydro2100 MWBagasse750 MWBiomass620 MWSolar2 MWTotal RE Installed Capacity – MWSource: Ministry of New & Renewable Energy Sources (MNRE)
10Wind Energy - Technology Differential heating of the earth’s surface and atmosphere induces vertical and horizontal air currents that are affected by the earth’s rotation and contours of the land and generates WIND.A wind turbine obtains its power input by converting the force of the wind into a torque (turning force) acting on the rotor blades.The amount of energy which the wind transfers to the rotor depends on the density of the air, the rotor area, and the wind speed.PLF of Wind Farm is normally in the range of 20 % to 30% depending upon the site conditions and WTG rating.P Powerρ Air Density (kg/m3)A Blade Area -turbine (m2)V Wind velocity (m/s)P = 0.5 X ρ X A X V3
11Wind Energy - Technology Major Components of Wind Turbine
12Wind Energy – Present Scenario Wind Power – Fastest growing renewable energy sourceGlobally, it grew at the average rate of 27 % pa over the past 10 years.While in India it grew at the average rate of 33% over the past 9 years.Presently, India is ranked 4th in the world in terms of Wind Energy Installed CapacityDrivers of growthEnvironmental Awareness and Sustainable DevelopmentGrowing Global Energy DemandImproving Competitiveness of renewable energySecurity of Supply ConcernsNew Markets (e.g. India, China etc)Carbon TradingFiscal Benefits by Govt. (PTC, feed in tariffs, etc)
14Solar Energy - Technology Solar power is by far the Earth's most available energy source, easily capable of providing many times the total current energy demand.Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity.Two main commercial ways of conversion of sunlight into electricity.Concentrating Solar Thermal Plant (CSP)Photovoltaic Plants (PV)CSP and PV both have their markets. PV is very successful in decentralized applications, whereas CSP offers advantages for central and large-scale applications. CSP power plants are the most cost-efficient way to generate and to store dispatch able CO2-free electricity. However, there is no competition between both. Rather, they have to be seen as complementary technologies.PLF of CSP – In the range of 20 % to 30 %PLF of PV – In the range of 15 % to 20 %
15Solar Energy - Technology Concentrating Solar Thermal Plant (CSP)It contains;Collector FieldTurbineGeneratorCooling TowerTransformerCourtesy: ESP Solar
16Solar Energy - Technology Solar Photovoltaic Plants (PV)It contains;Solar ArraysInverterTransformer
17Solar Energy - Technology In both CSP and PV technologies, solar resources plays major role.Maps are available to calculate solar resource of a particular region. However, for both CSP and PV technologies different solar radiations are taken into account.Basically two types of solar radiations are there;Global Horizontal irradiations (GHI)Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI)For PV technologies GHI is considered. GHIconsists of diffuse radiations and directhorizontal radiations (beam).Minimum GHI – 1000 kwh/m2 paFor CSP, DNI is considered. DNIis the amount of radiation received bya surface which is permanently alignedperpendicular to the incoming beam.Minimum DNI – 1900 kwh/m2 pa
18Solar Energy - Technology A typical DNI irradiation Map for India which is used to find a feasible site for CSP Plant.A typical GHI irradiation Map for India which is used to find a feasible site for PV Plant.
19Solar Energy – Current Scenario The total installed capacity of solar power (Both CSP and PV) as of 2008 is 2826 MW.In India the total installed capacity of solar power is around 2 MW.In India, various government and private players have entered into CSP and PV markets.MNRE has set a target to establish at least 50 MW of solar projects during the 11th plan.