What is sectionalism? Sectionalism: giving primary loyalty to a state or region rather than to the nation as a whole.
Setting the stage After 1812 War, an Era of Good Feeling emerged in the US. –National harmony –Political cooperation –An example: When Monroe ran for a 2 nd term, he was unopposed and received all but 1 electoral vote.
Differences were looming Despite Good Feeling, regional differences of opinion emerged National debates over: –Power of the Central Government –States Rights –Slavery 40 years later, a Civil War….
Sectionalism emerges By late 1820s, sectionalism crushes the Era of Good Feeling –Different life styles in the sections of the US became more pronounced after 1812 War because of Economic development Population shifts N S W
Sectionalism: Characteristics North: –Commercial economy –Favored policies that protect industries from foreign competition. –Increase trade. –Provide a strong banking system.
Sectionalism: Overview South: –Agricultural economy –Increase cotton exports Short staple cotton thanks to Eli Whitneys cotton gin. Slavery perpetuated! –Favored less interference from federal govt.
Sectionalism: Overview West –Agricultural economy –Wanted federal protection –Improve transportation. –Against regulated banking.
Sectionalism: The North What it wanted Favored bank of the US Favored protective tariffs (protect US industry) Favored increased immigration (more labor) Divided on territorial expansion. Favored road and canal projects.
Sectionalism: The South Opposed a bank of the US. Opposed protective tariffs. Opposed new immigration. Favored territorial expansion. Opposed road and canal projects.
Sectionalism: The West The West: Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri. –Opposed the bank of the US. –Divided on the tariff issue. –Favored increased immigration. –Favored territorial expansion. –Favored road and canal projects.
An example: The Tariff Controversy In 1828, Congress passed a very high protective tariff. –[Southerners called it the Tariff of Abominations] –Purpose: to protect infant Northern industries from foreign competition.
Tariff Controversy Northerners loved it! –It lets them grow their industries. Southerners hated it! –High rates increase cost of foreign manufactured goods in the South. –Foreign nations will reciprocate (raise tariffs against Southern goods.)